Depression and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

  • T. T. Shi
  • M. Min
  • Y. Zhang
  • C. Y. Sun
  • M. M. Liang
  • Y. H. SunEmail author
Review Article


Recently published studies on the association between depression and hip fracture (HF) are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis with the main aim to clarify the association between depression and HF, and also to identify possible susceptible groups. Relevant literature published until February 2019 was obtained and screened according to established inclusion criteria. Two researchers independently processed quality assessment and data extraction prior to the meta-analysis. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95%CI (confidence intervals) were calculated. To explore the sources of heterogeneity, subgroup analyses were performed based on study design, study region, NOS scores, follow-up duration, diagnostic criteria, sex, national income level, and adjustments (bone mineral density (BMD), antidepressant, calcium intake, and smoking). Ten studies with 13 estimates, involving 375,438 participants and 4576 HFs, were included. It was found that patients with depression had a higher risk of HF than non-depressed patients (HR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.11–1.31). Sensitivity analysis results show that the association is relatively stable. The studies that were not adjusted for confounders (e.g., antidepressant, BMD, calcium intake, and smoking) had higher overall HR compared to the studies that adjusted for the corresponding confounding factors. HFs are more likely to occur in European and male depression patients. This meta-analysis provided evidence of a modest positive association between depression and the risk of HFs, and the association is stronger in European and male patients. Implementation of practical measures to prevent and treat depression is of great public health significance.


Depression Depressive symptoms Hip fracture Meta-analysis 



We thank Dr. Guangbo Qu for his assistance with this project.


This study received no funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public HealthAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.AMITA Health Saint Joseph Hospital ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Center for Evidence-Based PracticeAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina

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