Bone metabolism markers are associated with neck circumference in adult Arab women

  • R.S. Albassam
  • S. Sabico
  • A.M. Alnaami
  • M.N.K. Khattak
  • K.Y. Lei
  • N.M. Al-Daghri
  • J.-Y. Reginster
  • M.S. Alokail
Original Article



The study aimed to determine whether neck circumference is associated with bone metabolism markers among adult Arab women and found modest but significant associations with bone resorption markers, suggesting that neck circumference, a surrogate measure of upper subcutaneous fat, influences bone turnover expression among adult females.


Body fat distribution is associated with decreased bone resorption and neck circumference (NC), a surrogate measure for upper body fat, has never been tested as a marker that can reflect bone turnover. This is the first study aimed to analyze the associations between NC and several bone biomarkers among adult Saudi women.


This cross-sectional study included a total of 265 middle-aged Saudi women [86 non-obese (mean age 52.7 ± 8.1; mean BMI 26.9 ± 2.3) and 179 obese (mean age 50.6 ± 7.5; mean BMI 35.7 ± 4.5)] recruited from primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included BMI, NC, waist and hip circumferences, total body fat percentage (%), and blood pressure. Biochemical parameters included glucose and lipid profile which were measured routinely. Serum levels of 25(OH) D, parathyroid hormone, RANKl, sclerostin, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX-I), Dkk1, IL1β, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were measured using commercially available assays.


In all groups, NC was inversely associated with PTH (R = − 0.22; p < 0.05) and positively associated with osteoprotegerin (R = 0.20; p < 0.05) even after adjustments for age and BMI. Using all anthropometric indices as independent variables showed that only NC explained the variance perceived in CTX-I (p = 0.049). In the non-obese, waist-hip ratio (WHR) was significantly associated with sclerostin (R = 0.40; p < 0.05) and body fat was significantly associated with osteopontin (R = 0.42; p < 0.05).


NC is modestly but significantly associated with bone biomarkers, particularly the bone resorption markers, among adult Arab women. The present findings highlight the importance of NC as measure of upper body subcutaneous fat in influencing bone biomarker expression in adult females.


Bone turnover markers Neck Obesity Women 


Funding information

The Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases and the International Scientific Partnership Program (ISPP#0111) at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, funded the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Written informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to inclusion. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the College of Science in KSU, Riyadh, KSA.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food ScienceUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health EconomicsUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium

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