Prevalence of urinary incontinence in women powerlifters: a pilot study
- 86 Downloads
Introduction and hypothesis
Increased intra-abdominal pressure is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) as is increasing age, obesity, and participating in sport at an elite level. We aimed to determine the prevalence of UI in competitive women powerlifters and establish if commonly cited risk factors affect the incidence of UI.
The authors developed a 17-item questionnaire to investigate the prevalence of UI and the relationship of UI with age, body mass, resistance training experience, and competition grade in competitive women powerlifters. The questionnaire was distributed through three major powerlifting federations in Australia for 16 months. The data of 134 competitive women powerlifters were collected anonymously using Qualtrics, and were analysed using multivariate analysis.
In combination, the age of lifters, resistance training experience, body weight categories, and competition grade accounted for a significant 28% of the variability in the Incontinence Severity Index (ISI) (p < 0.01). However, the ISI was not significantly different among age groups, body weight categories, or competition grade. Approximately, 41% of women powerlifters had experienced UI at some stage in life, and 37% of women powerlifters currently experienced UI during training, competition, or maximum effort lifts. However, the rate of UI experienced during daily life activities was approximately 11%.
This study showed that competitive women powerlifters experience a higher rate of UI during lifting-related activities than in daily life and that the rate of UI correlates positively with age, body weight categories, resistance training experience, and competition grade.
KeywordsBMI Incontinence severity index Intra-abdominal pressure Pelvic floor Resistance training Stress urinary incontinence
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
LW is the Secretary of a not-for-profit organisation, Darwin Powersports Incorporated. Darwin Powersports Incorporated promotes strength sports and conducts local powerlifting and strongman competitions. DC and DG declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 4.Brennand E, Ruiz-Mirazo E, Tang S, Kim-Fine S. Urinary leakage during exercise: problematic activities, adaptive behaviors, and interest in treatment for physically active Canadian women. Int Urogynecol J. 2018;29(4):497–503.Google Scholar
- 19.Powerlifting Australia. 2017 Australian Juniors & Masters Powerlifting & Bench Press Championships, Australian Bench Press Championships. 2017; Available from: https://powerliftingaustralia.com/shop/2017-australian-junior-masters-powerlifting-bench-press-championships-australian-bench-press-championships/.
- 22.Sidik SM. The prevalence of urinary incontinence among the elderly in a rural community in Selangor. Malays J Med Sci. 2010;17(2):18.Google Scholar
- 25.Hawthorne G. Measuring incontinence in Australia, in Canberra: commonwealth of Australia. 2006.Google Scholar
- 26.Deloitte Access Economics. The economic impact of incontinence in Australia. Continence Foundation of Australia. 2011.Google Scholar
- 27.Allen P, Bennett K, Heritage B. SPSS statistics version 22: a practical guide. 2014. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
- 28.Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, MI: Erlbaum; 1988.Google Scholar
- 31.Carls C. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in high school and college-age female athletes in the Midwest: implications for education and prevention. Urol Nurs. 2007;27(1):21–4 39.Google Scholar