Sitting versus standing makes a difference in musculoskeletal discomfort and postural load for surgeons performing vaginal surgery
Introduction and hypothesis
We compared musculoskeletal discomfort and postural load among surgeons in sitting and standing positions during vaginal surgery.
Materials and methods
Assessment of discomfort and posture of the primary surgeons in both positions was performed at two institutions. The primary outcome was an increase in body discomfort score after surgery as determined from subjective responses using validated tools. The secondary outcome was the percentage of time spent in awkward body postures measured objectively and stratified into awkward postures for neck, trunk, and bilateral shoulder angles. Variables were compared between sitting and standing positions using Fisher’s exact test for primary outcomes and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for secondary outcomes.
Data were collected for 24 surgeries from four surgeons in sitting position and nine surgeries from nine surgeons in standing position. The standing surgeons reported a significant increase in discomfort postoperatively for bilateral wrists, thighs, and lower legs compared with the sitting surgeons. The median percentage of time spent in awkward postures was significantly lower for the trunk in the standing versus sitting position (median 0.3% vs 58.8%, p < 0.001) but was significantly higher for both shoulders in the standing versus the sitting position (right shoulder: median 17.8% vs 0.3%, p = 0.003; left shoulder: median 7.4% vs 0.2%, p = 0.003).
Surgeons reported more discomfort in when performing vaginal surgery while standing. The postural load was worse for trunk but favorable for bilateral shoulders when seated. Such differences may impact a surgeon’s decision to perform vaginal surgery seated rather than standing.
KeywordsErgonomics Vaginal surgery Musculoskeletal discomfort Postural load
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
Ruchira Singh: None.
Ladin A. Yurteri-Kaplan: None.
Melissa M. Morrow: None.
Michaela E. McGree: None.
Amy L. Weaver: None.
Xinhui Zhu: None.
Victor L. Paquet: None.
John B. Gebhart: Royalties - UpToDate and Elsevier.
Susan Hallbeck: None.
Accepted for oral poster presentation at the 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons, 26–29 March 2017, San Antonio, TX, USA.
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