Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 93, Issue 5, pp 749–764 | Cite as

LEO constellation-augmented multi-GNSS for rapid PPP convergence

  • Xingxing Li
  • Fujian Ma
  • Xin Li
  • Hongbo Lv
  • Lang Bian
  • Zihao Jiang
  • Xiaohong ZhangEmail author
Original Article


The fast motion of low earth orbit (LEO) satellite contributes to the geometric diversity, allowing for rapid convergence of precise point positioning (PPP). In this contribution, we investigate the PPP performance of the LEO constellation-augmented full operational capability (FOC) multi-GNSS. We design six LEO constellations with different satellite numbers, orbit altitudes and orbit types, together with the FOC multi-GNSS constellations, and then simulate both the onboard LEO and ground-based observations. The multi-GNSS POD result shows much better orbit accuracy of 3.3, 2.7 and 2.6 cm in radial, along-track and cross-track components, respectively, compared with that of 10.3, 9.2 and 8.9 cm for GPS-only POD. Furthermore, the performance of LEO-augmented multi-GNSS PPP is evaluated. With the augmentation of 60-, 96-, 192- and 288-satellite LEO constellation, the multi-GNSS PPP convergence time can be shortened from 9.6 to 7.0, 3.2, 2.1 and 1.3 min, respectively, in midlatitude region. For LEO-augmented GPS- and BDS-only PPP, the improvement is more significant with the convergence time dramatically shortened by 90% from about 25 to within 3 min with 192- or 288-satellite constellation. The augmentation capability is also found to be associated with station latitude, and the higher latitude, the better performance. To enable about more than 70% significant reduction on convergence time, as well as considering the cost, the 192-satellite LEO constellation scheme is suggested. In terms of orbit altitude, the scheme of 1000 km presents better performance than that of 600 km. As for orbit type, the performances are comparable for polar and sun-synchronous orbits. Additionally, LEO-only PPP can be achieved with the convergence time of about 6.5 min.


LEO constellation LEO-augmented multi-GNSS Precise point positioning (PPP) Precise orbit determination (POD) Rapid convergence 



We are very grateful to the reviewers for their helpful remarks for improving the manuscript. We would also like to express our gratitude to IGS, MGEX, GFZ, DLR and CODE for providing multi-GNSS data and products. This study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41774030), the Hubei Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2018CFA081) and the National Youth Thousand Talents Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingxing Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fujian Ma
    • 1
  • Xin Li
    • 1
  • Hongbo Lv
    • 1
  • Lang Bian
    • 3
  • Zihao Jiang
    • 1
  • Xiaohong Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Geodesy and GeomaticsWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ)PotsdamGermany
  3. 3.China Academy of Space Technology (Xi’an)Xi’anChina

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