Empirical Economics

, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 2129–2148 | Cite as

Determinants of demand for traditional Chinese opera

  • Junlong WuEmail author
  • Keshen Jiang
  • Chaoqing Yuan


Following the econometric approach in cultural economics, this paper investigates factors that determine the demand for traditional Chinese opera by applying annual aggregate time series data from 1995 to 2015 in China. The analysis estimates two multiple linear regression equations for traditional Chinese opera by OLS. We find a positive effect of the income level and a negative effect of the admission ticket price on the demand for traditional Chinese opera. We are able to identify that opera, dance and music might not be close substitutes to traditional Chinese opera or cannot be easily defined as complements to it. Attendance is found to be insignificantly affected by capacity constraints and quality of traditional Chinese opera. The percentage of the population with college or higher degree has a negative impact on traditional Chinese opera attendance. The results also reveal that 2-year lagged consumption capital and the proportion of 15–24-year-old population positively affect current demand for traditional Chinese opera.


Demand Determinants Traditional Chinese opera Performing arts 

JEL Classification

Z11 L32 L82 D12 



The authors wish to thank two anonymous referees whose valuable comments significantly improve the quality of the paper and Professor Robert M. Kunst whose constructive suggestions and impressive editorial work eliminate many errors of the paper and promote the academic exchange of economic research on traditional Chinese opera.


  1. Abbe-Decarroux F (1994) The perception of quality and demand for services: empirical application to the performing arts. J Econ Behav Organ 23(1):99–107Google Scholar
  2. Akdede SH, King J (2006) Demand for and productivity analysis of Turkish public theater. J Cult Econ 30(3):219–231Google Scholar
  3. Ateca-Amestoy V (2008) Determining heterogeneous behavior for theater attendance. J Cult Econ 32(2):127–151Google Scholar
  4. Baumol WJ, Bowen WG (1966) Performing arts: the economic dilemma. Twentieth Century Fund, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker GS, Murphy KM (1988) A theory of rational addiction. J Polit Econ 96(4):675–700Google Scholar
  6. Bonato L, Gagliardi F, Gorelli S (1990) The demand for live performing arts in Italy. J Cult Econ 14(2):41–52Google Scholar
  7. Castiglione C, Infante D (2016) Rational addiction and cultural goods: the case of the Italian theatergoer. J Cult Econ 40(2):163–190Google Scholar
  8. Catherine Y (2007) Refined beauty, new woman, dynamic heroine or fighter for the nation? Perceptions of China in the programme selection for Mei Lanfang’s performances in Japan (1919), the United States (1930) and the Soviet Union (1935). Eur J East Asian Stud 6(1):75–102Google Scholar
  9. Cheng TC, Wen WJ (2011) Determinants of performing arts attendance in Taiwan: a multivariate probit analysis. Appl Econ Lett 18(15):1437–1442Google Scholar
  10. Corning J, Levy A (2002) Demand for live theater with market segmentation and seasonality. J Cult Econ 26(3):217–235Google Scholar
  11. Dicky DA, Fuller WA (1979) Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. J Am Stat Assoc 74:427–431Google Scholar
  12. Ekelund RB, Ritenour S (1999) An exploration of the Beckerian theory of time costs: symphony concert demand. Am J Econ Soc 58(4):887–899Google Scholar
  13. Enders W (2015) Applied econometric time series. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  14. Engle RF, Granger CW (1987) Co-integration and error correction: representation, estimation and testing. Econometrica 55(2):251–276Google Scholar
  15. Felton MV (1989) Major influences on the demand for opera tickets. J Cult Econ 13(1):53–64Google Scholar
  16. Felton MV (1992) On the assumed inelasticity of demand for the performing arts. J Cult Econ 16(1):1–12Google Scholar
  17. Felton MV (1994) Evidence of the existence of the cost disease in the performing arts. J Cult Econ 18(4):301–312Google Scholar
  18. Gapinski JH (1984) The economics of performing Shakespeare. Am Econ Rev 74(3):458–466Google Scholar
  19. Gapinski JH (1986) The lively arts as substitutes for the lively arts. Am Econ Rev 76(2):20–25Google Scholar
  20. Getzner M (2002) Determinants of public cultural expenditures: an exploratory time series analysis for Austria. J Cult Econ 26(4):287–306Google Scholar
  21. Getzner M (2015) Cultural politics: exploring determinants of cultural expenditure. Poetics 49(2):60–75Google Scholar
  22. Goldman SA (2012) Opera and the city: the politics of culture in Beijing, 1770–1900. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray CM (2003) Participation. In: Towse R (ed) A handbook of cultural economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 356–365Google Scholar
  24. Grisolia JM, Willis K (2012) A latent class model for theatre demand. J Cult Econ 36(2):113–139Google Scholar
  25. Haug AA (1992) Critical values for the Z α-Phillips–Ouliaris test for cointegration. Oxf B Econ Stat 54(3):473–480Google Scholar
  26. Jenkins SP, Austen-Smith D (1987) Interdependent decision-making in nonprofit industries: a simultaneous equation analysis of English provincial theatres. Int J Ind Organ 5(2):149–174Google Scholar
  27. Krebs S, Pommerehne WW (1995) Politico-economic interactions of German public Chinese traditional opera institutions. J Cult Econ 19(1):17–32Google Scholar
  28. Kurabayashi Y, Ito T (1992) Socio-economic characteristics of audiences for Western classical music in Japan: a statistical analysis. In: Towse R, Khakee A (eds) Cultural economics. Springer, Berlin, pp 275–287Google Scholar
  29. Laamanen JP (2013) Estimating demand for opera using sales system data: the case of Finnish national Opera. J Cult Econ 37(4):417–432Google Scholar
  30. Lancaster K (1966) A new approach to consumer theory. J Polit Econ 74(2):132–157Google Scholar
  31. Lange M, Luksetich W (1984) Demand elasticities for symphony orchestras. J Cult Econ 8(1):29–48Google Scholar
  32. Luksetich W, Lange M (1995) A simultaneous model of nonprofit symphony orchestra behavior. J Cult Econ 19(1):49–68Google Scholar
  33. MacKinnon JG (1991) Critical Values for Cointegration. In: Engle RF, Granger CW (eds) Long-run economic relationships: readings in cointegration. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 267–276Google Scholar
  34. MacKinnon JG (1996) Numerical distribution functions for unit root and cointegration tests. J Appl Econom 11(6):601–618Google Scholar
  35. MacKinnon JG (2010) Critical values for cointegration tests. Queen’s University Working Papers 1227Google Scholar
  36. Moore TG (1966) The demand for Broadway theater tickets. Rev Econ Stat 48(1):79–87Google Scholar
  37. Nancy G (2001) Brokering glory for the Chinese nation: Peking opera’s 1930 American tour. Comp Drama 35(3/4):377–392Google Scholar
  38. O’Hagan J (2014) Attendance at/participation in the arts by educational level: evidence and issues. Homo Oeconomicus 31(3):411–429Google Scholar
  39. O’Hagan J (2017) Attendance at/participation in the arts by educational level: evidence and issues. In: Ateca-Amestoy V, Ginsburgh V, Mazza I, O’Hagan J, Prieto-Rodriguez J (eds) Enhancing participation in the arts in the EU. Springer, Cham, pp 51–66Google Scholar
  40. O’Hagan J, Zieba M (2010) Output characteristics and other determinants of theatre attendance-an econometric analysis of German data. Appl Econ Q 56(2):147–174Google Scholar
  41. Owen J (1971) The demand for leisure. J Polit Econ 79(1):56–76Google Scholar
  42. Palma ML, Palma L, Aguado LF (2013) Determinants of cultural and popular celebration attendance: the case study of Seville Spring Fiestas. J Cult Econ 37(1):87–107Google Scholar
  43. Phillips PCB, Ouliaris S (1990) Asymptotic properties of residual based tests for cointegration. Econometrica 58(1):165–193Google Scholar
  44. Phillips PB, Perron P (1988) Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika 75(2):335–346Google Scholar
  45. Pompe J, Tamburri L, Munn J (2013) Symphony concert demand: Does programming matter? J Art Manag Law Soc 43(4):215–228Google Scholar
  46. Samuelson PA, Nordhaus WD (2005) Economics. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Seaman B (2006) Empirical studies of demand for the performing arts. In: Ginsburgh V, Throsby D (eds) Handbook of the economics of art and culture, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 416–472Google Scholar
  48. Shin Y (1994) A residual-based test of the null of cointegration against the alternative of no cointegration. Econom Theory 10(1):91–115Google Scholar
  49. Throsby D (1990) Perception of quality in demand for the theatre. J Cult Econ 14(1):65–82Google Scholar
  50. Toma M, Meads H (2007) Recent evidence on the determinants of concert attendance for mid-size symphonies. J Econ Finance 31(3):412–421Google Scholar
  51. Touchstone SK (1980) The effects of contributions on price and attendance in the lively arts. J Cult Econ 4(1):33–46Google Scholar
  52. Towse R (2010) A textbook of cultural economics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Urrutiaguer D (2002) Quality judgments and demand for French public theatre. J Cult Econ 26(3):185–202Google Scholar
  54. Wen WJ, Cheng TC (2013) Performing arts attendance in Taiwan, who and how often? J Cult Econ 37(2):309–325Google Scholar
  55. Werck K, Heyndels B (2007) Programmatic choices and the demand for theatre: the case of Flemish theatres. J Cult Econ 31(1):25–41Google Scholar
  56. Werck KM, Stultjes GP, Heyndels B (2008) Budgetary constraints and programmatic choices by Flemish subsidized theatres. Appl Econ 40(18):2369–2379Google Scholar
  57. Wiesand A (1995) Musiktheater und Konzerte: mehr Rückhalt in der Bevölkerung. Aus den Ergebnissen des 5. Kulturbarometers. Das Orchester 6:2–14Google Scholar
  58. Withers G (1980) Unbalanced growth and the demand for the performing arts: an econometric analysis. South Econ J 46(3):735–742Google Scholar
  59. Wooldridge JM (2013) Introductory econometrics: a modern approach. Cengage Learning, MasonGoogle Scholar
  60. Zheng CY (2010) Regionalism, localization and folklore nature: on the characteristics of local opera and its future trend. J Hubei Univ (Philos Soc Sci) 37(6):1–6Google Scholar
  61. Zhou XS (1999) The outline of basic gains and losses in the development of traditional Chinese operas in the twentieth century. Hundred Sch Arts 4:44–50Google Scholar
  62. Zhou YB (2007) The history of traditional Chinese operas. Shanghai Century Publishing (Group) Co. Ltd, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhu HF (2012) The heritage and development of traditional Chinese opera in the context of contemporary China’s urbanization. Hundred Sch Arts 6:46–53Google Scholar
  64. Zieba M (2009) Full-income and price elasticities of demand for German public theatre. J Cult Econ 33(2):85–108Google Scholar
  65. Zieba M (2011) Determinants of demand for theatre tickets in Austria and Switzerland. Austrian J Stat 40(3):209–219Google Scholar
  66. Zieba M (2016) Tourism flows and the demand for regional and city theatres in Austria. J Cult Econ 40(2):1–31Google Scholar
  67. Zieba M, O’Hagan J (2013) Demand for live orchestral music-the case of German Kulturorchester. Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik 233(2):225–245Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina
  2. 2.Nanhang Jincheng CollegeNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations