Empirical Economics

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 469–497 | Cite as

Dynamic analysis of trade balance behavior in a small open economy: the J-curve phenomenon and the Czech economy

  • Martin GürtlerEmail author


This paper focuses on empirical investigation of the J-curve phenomenon in the Czech economy. There are emphasized some problem areas of past research and suggested, from our point of view, better practices. The entire analysis is framed within the context of a small open economy. Using aggregate quarterly data for the period 2000–2014, we find that the real effective exchange rate has a strongly negative effect on trade balance in the short run; this effect is, however, replaced with a positive one in the long run, thus confirming the J-curve phenomenon. It follows from the computed impulse-response functions that a positive effect can occur as early as the second quarter. Alternatively, if depreciation or devaluation is perceived by economic agents as permanent, the improvement in the trade balance arrives with a time delay (ranging from 2 to 3 years). Besides domestic and foreign income, domestic and foreign interest rate were also chosen as explanatory variables with an intention to incorporate international borrowing and lending. It has been shown that the intertemporal substitution represents a marginal factor for the trade balance determination. Conversely, domestic economic growth exhibits a significantly greater influence.


J-curve Trade balance Exchange rate Structural approach to cointegration Impulse-response analysis Hysteresis Small open economy 

JEL Classification

F14 F31 F32 F41 C51 C52 C61 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of EconomicsCzech University of Life Sciences PraguePragueCzech Republic

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