A 3D model was employed to study the effect of melt initial superheat on the macrosegregation formation using FE modeling and experimentation methods. The casting process of three ingots with the initial melt superheats of 75 °C, 65 °C, and 55 °C were simulated. The three cases represented three variables encountered in industry during casting of large size ingots. For the above three studied cases, all other casting conditions were kept the same. Results showed that the variation of initial melt superheat gave rise to changes in temperature pattern, liquid flow field, solidification speed, and thermomechanical contraction. Under the combined actions of all these changes, lower superheat tended to alleviate the segregation intensity in the upper part of the ingot body, in the hot-top, and in the solute-rich bands between the ingot centerline and periphery. The beneficial effect of lower superheat on alleviation of segregation severity was confirmed by experimental chemical measurement results. The results were analyzed in terms of heat and mass transfer theories and allow for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of macrosegregation in ingot casting process. The findings should be helpful for the casting process design of a given ingot of high value-added steels or other alloys.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Pickering EJ (2013) Macrosegregation in steel ingots: the applicability of modelling and characterisation techniques. ISIJ Int 53:935–949. https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.53.935
Becker WT, Shipley RJ (2002) Failures related to metalworking in failure analysis and prevention. ASM Handbooks. Vol. 11, ASM International, Materials Park, OH. USA; 5-81. ISBN: 978-0-87170-704-8
Loucif A, Ben Fredj E, Harris N, Shahriari D, Jahazi M, Lapierre-Boire LP (2018) Evolution of A-type macrosegregation in large size steel ingot after multistep forging and heat treatment. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 49:1046–1055. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-018-1255-2
Scarabello D, Ghiotti A, Bruschi S (2013) FE modelling of large ingot hot forging. Int J Mater Form 3(Supp 1):335–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-010-0775-3
Suzuki K, Taniguchi K (1981) The mechanism of reducing “A” segregates in steels ingots. T ISIJ 21:235–242
Dub VS, Romashkin AN, Mal’ginow AN, Ivanov IA, Tolstykh DS (2014) Effect of the geometry of an ingot on its chemical heterogeneity. Part I. Metallurgist 57:987–995. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11015-014-9834-1
Lesoult G (2005) Macrosegregation in steel strands and ingots: characterization, formation and consequences. Mater Sci and Eng A 413-414:19–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.08.203
Pikkarainen T, Vuorenmaa V, Rentola I, Leinonen M, Porter D (2016) Effect of superheat on macrostructure and macrosegregation in continuous cast low-alloy steel slabs. 4th International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP-4) IOP Publishing IOP Conf Series: Materials Science and Engineering 117:012064. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/117/1/012064
Zhang C, Loucif A, Jahazi M, Tremblay R, Lapierre LP (2018) On the effect of filling rate on positive macrosegregation patterns in large-size cast steel ingots. Appl Sci 8:1878. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101878
Galkin AN, Zyuban NA, Rutskii DV, Gamanyuk SB, Puzikov AY, Firsenko VV (2013) Effect of chilling of the top part of a steel ingot on the conditions of its crystallization and the quality of forgings obtained from it. Metallurgist 57:199–206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11015-013-9713-1
Zhang B, Cui J, Lu G (2003) Effect of low-frequency magnetic field on macrosegregation of continuous casting aluminum alloys. Mater Lett 57:1707–1711. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(02)01055-8
Tu WT, Shen HF, Liu BC (2015) Modelling of macrosegregation in a 231-ton steel ingot with multi-pouring process. Mater Rese Innov 19:S59–S63. https://doi.org/10.1179/1432891715Z.0000000001517
Campbell J (2011) Complete casting handbook, metal casting processes, metallurgy, techniques and design. 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier ltd., USA
Liu DR, Kang XH, Fu PX, Li DZ (2011) Modeling of macrosegregation in steel ingot: influence of mold shape and melt superheat. Kovove Mater 49:143–153. https://doi.org/10.4149/km-2011-2-143
Zhong H, Tan Y, Li H, Mao X, Zhai Q (2012) The effect of high superheat on the solidification structure and carbon segregation of ferrite-based alloy. Supplemental proceedings: Materials Processing and Interfaces TMS (the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 1:215-220. http://doi.org/10.1002/9781118356074.ch29
EI-Bealy MO, Hammouda RM (2007) On the mechanism of natural convection and equiaxed structure during dendritic solidification processes. Steel Research int 78:602–611. https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.200706255
Mäkinen M, Uoti M (2006) The effect of superheat on micro- and macrosegregation and crack formation in the continuous casting of low-alloyed copper. Mater Sci Forum 508:549–554. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.508.549
Sun QY, Liu DR, Zhang JJ, Wang LP, Guo EJ (2016) Numerical simulation of macrosegregation with grain motion during solidification of Mg-4wt.%Y alloy. Mod Phys Lett B. 30:1450417. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217984916504170
Guan R, Ji C, Zhu M, Deng S (2018) Numerical simulation of V-shaped segregation in continuous casting blooms based on a microsegregation model. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 49:2571–2583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-018-1352-2
Choudhary S, Ganguly S (2007) Morphology and segregation in continuously cast high carbon. ISIJ Int 47:1759–1766. https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.47.1759
Yadav A, Pathak N, Kumar A, Sarkar S (2009) Effects of the filling process on the evolution of the mushy zone and macrosegregation in alloy casting. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 17:035006. https://doi.org/10.1088/0965-0393/17/3/035006
Eskin DG, VSavran VI, Katgerman L (2005) Effects of melt temperature and casting speed on the structure and defect formation during direct-chill casting of an Al-Cu alloy. Metall Mater Trans A 36:1965–1976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-005-0059-6
TherCast 8.2®, Transvalor, S.A., Cedex, France
Duan Z, Tu W, Shen B, Shen H, Liu B (2016) Experimental measurements for numerical simulation of macrosegregation in a 36-ton steel ingot. Metall Mater Trans A 47:3597–3605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3531-6
Zhang C, Shahriari D, Loucif A, Melkonyan H, Jahazi M (2018) Influence of thermomechanical shrinkage on macrosegregation during solidification of a large-sized high-strength steel ingot. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 99:3035–3048. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3531-6
Lesoult G (2005) Macrosgregation in steel strands and ingots: characterisation, formation and consequents. Mater Sci Eng A 413-414:19–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.08.203
Zhang C, Bao Y, Wang M (2016) Influence of casting parameters on shrinkage porosity of a 19 ton steel ingot. Metall Ital 1:37–44
Hachani L, aadi B, Wang XD, Nouri A, Zaidat K (2012) Experimental analysis of the solidification of Sn–3 wt. % Pb alloy under natural convection. Intl J Heat Mass Transf 55:1986–1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.11.054
Liu SF, Liu LY, Kang LG (2008) Refinement role of electromagnetic stirring and strontium in AZ91 magnesium alloy. J Alloys Compd 450:546–550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.07.053
Finkl Steel-Sorel Co. for providing 417 the material is greatly appreciated.
The financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada in the form of a Collaborative Research and Development Grant (CRDG) under number 470174 is gratefully acknowledged. Finkl Steel-Sorel Co. for providing the material is greatly appreciated.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, C., Jahazi, M. & Tremblay, R. Simulation and experimental validation of the effect of superheat on macrosegregation in large-size steel ingots. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05044-z
- Finite element modeling
- Large-size ingot