Investigation into the effect of wheel groove depth and width on grinding performance in creep-feed grinding

  • A. Riebel
  • R. BauerEmail author
  • A. Warkentin


This work presents an investigation into the effects of different groove depths and groove widths on grinding performance in creep-feed grinding using grinding wheels with spiral-shaped circumferential grooves inscribed around their surface. These grooves had constant widths of 3.2 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively, allowing for the decoupling of groove depth effects from groove width effects. Force, power, and surface roughness data was acquired for each experiment. There were only small differences between the results for force, power, and workpiece surface roughness for both groove widths. It was found that the grinding forces and spindle power initially decreased with increasing groove depth but the reductions in forces and power decreased and eventually leveled off as groove depths increased. For the experimental conditions of this research, it was found that there is little benefit in grooving deeper than ~ 400 μm. Groove depth did not appear to influence workpiece surface roughness significantly. The changes in grinding performance observed at different groove depths were attributed to changes in coolant flow. It was discovered that the coolant-induced force resulting from hydrodynamic pressure in the grinding zone decreased with respect to increasing groove depth up until about 400 μm which is consistent with the results observed for forces and power. The decrease in coolant-induced force signifies an increase in useful flowrate which was believed to be responsible for the improved grinding performance observed at different groove depths.


Grinding Circumferentially grooved wheel Groove depth Groove width Creep feed 


Funding information

The authors received financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI).


  1. 1.
    Li HN, Axinte D (2016) Textured grinding wheels: a review. Int J Mach Tool Manu 109:8–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Forbrigger C, Bauer R, Warkentin A (2017) A review of state-of-the-art vitrified bond grinding wheel grooving processes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5–8):2207–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Verkerk J. (1979) Slotted wheels to avoid cracks in precision grinding. 1979 Proceedings: Sixteenth Annual Abrasive Engineering Society Conference/Exhibition, 75–81Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uhlmann E, Hochschild L (2013) Tool optimization for high speed grinding. J Prod Eng 7(2–3):185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azarhoushang B, Daneshi A, Lee DH (2017) Evaluation of thermal damages and residual stresses in dry grinding by structured wheels. J Clean Prod 142:1922–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koklu U (2014) Grinding with helically grooved wheels. P I Mech Eng E-J Pro 228(1):33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu YC, Xu HJ, Xu JH (2002) Optimization design of grinding wheel topography for high efficiency grinding. J Mater Process Technol 129:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohamed AMO, Bauer R, Warkentin A (2013) Application of shallow circumferential grooved wheels to creep-feed grinding. J Mater Process Technol 213(5):700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aurich JC, Kirsch B (2013) Improved coolant supply through slotted grinding wheel. CIRP Ann-Manuf Technol 62(1):363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mohamed AMO, Warkentin A, Bauer R (2017) Prediction of workpiece surface texture using circumferentially grooved grinding wheels. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–4):1149–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mohamed AMO, Bauer R, Warkentin A (2014) A novel method for grooving and re-grooving aluminum oxide grinding wheels. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73(5–8):715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Forbrigger C, Warkentin A, Bauer R (2018) Improving the performance of profile grinding wheels with helical grooves. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97:2331–2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McDonald A, Bauer R, Warkentin A (2016) Design and validation of a grinding wheel optical scanner system to repeatedly measure and characterize wheel surface topography. Measurement 93:541–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malkin S (1989) Grinding technology and applications of machining with abrasives. SME, DearbornGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gviniashvili ÃVK, Woolley NH, Rowe WB (2004) Useful coolant flowrate in grinding. Int J Mach Tool Manu 44:629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brinksmeier E, Heinzel C, Wittmann M (1999) Friction, cooling and lubrication in grinding. CIRP Ann-Manuf Technol 48(2):581–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vesali A, Tawakoli T (2014) Study on hydrodynamic pressure in grinding contact zone considering grinding parameters and grinding wheel specifications. Procedia CIRP 14:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hwang Y, Kim GH, Kim YB, Kim JH, Lee SK (2016) Suppression of the inflection pattern in ultraprecision grinding through the minimization of the hydrodynamic force using a toothed wheel. Int J Mach Tool Manu 100:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gviniashvili VK, Webster J, Rowe WB (2005) Fluid flow and pressure in the grinding wheel-workpiece interface. J Manuf Sci E-T ASME 127(1):198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chong-Ching C (1997) An application of lubrication theory to predict useful flow-rate of coolants on grinding porous media. Tribol Int 30(8):575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klocke F, Baus A, Beck T (2000) Coolant induced forces in CBN high speed grinding with shoe nozzles. CIRP Ann-Manuf Technol 49(1):241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations