Processing and tooling considerations in joining by forming technologies; part B—friction-based welding

  • Masoud Salamati
  • Mahdi SoltanpourEmail author
  • Ali Fazli


Solid-state welding is a variant of joining by forming technologies, in which metallurgical bonds are established as a result of severe plastic deformation at the interface of the workpieces. Solid-state welding is a promising tool to manufacture highly reliable joints of two or more metallic workpieces, either similar or dissimilar. However, some processes are also developed to perform solid-state welding on polymers and polymer matrix composites. Although solid-state welding methods are used to heat the workpiece, heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generally avoided or is considerably narrower compared to the conventional fusion welding and arc welding techniques, due to the more controlled heat input. Solid-state bonds can be established using frictional work, bulk metal forming, and severe energy of a high-speed impact. In this article, the processing conditions required to establish solid-state bonds by frictional work are reviewed. Several tooling and processing considerations are taken into account. Material-related aspects, process optimization techniques, joint mechanical behavior, and the influence of various processing and tooling parameters on mechanical behavior are the fields of concentration in this study.


Joining Plastic deformation Mechanical processing Solid-state welding Weld interface Intermetallic compound 



Acrylonytrile butadine styrene


Aluminum foam sandwich


Advanced high-strength steel


Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian


Aluminum matrix composite


Artificial neural network


Analysis of variance


Advancing side


Anchoring zone


Base material


Continuous drive friction welding


Continuous dynamic recrystallization


Computational fluid dynamics


Carbon fiber–reinforced plastic


Complete recrystallization fraction


Dynamic recovery


Dynamic recrystallization


Electrohydraulic clinching


Electromagnetic clinching


Explosive welding


Embedded zone


Fused deposition modeling


Finite element


Finite element analysis


Finite element method


Friction riveting


Fiber-reinforced plastic


Friction stir clinching


Friction spot joining


Friction spot welding


Friction stir spot welding


Friction stir welding


Friction welding


Fusion zone


Genetic algorithm


Geometric dynamic recrystallization


Glass fiber-reinforced plastic


High angle grain boundary


Heat-affected zone


High-frequency linear friction welding


Holding pressure time


High-velocity impact welding


Injection clinching joining


Inertia friction welding


Intermetallic compound


Low angle grain boundary


Linear friction welding


Laser impact welding


Modified friction stir clinching


Metal heat-affected zone


Metal inert gas welding


Metal matrix composite


Magnetic pulse welding


Metal thermomechanically affected zone


Nanoreinforcing particle


Orbital friction welding


Polyamide 6




Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride






Projection friction stir spot welding


Polymer heat-affected zone


Polymer matrix composite


Polyphenylene sulfide


Particle swarm optimization


Polymer thermomechanically affected zone


Post-weld heat treatment


Rotating anvil friction stir spot welding


Rotary friction welding


Retreating side


Response surface methodology


Resistance spot welding


Simulated annealing


Severe plastic deformation


Smoothed particles hydrodynamics


Stationary shoulder friction stir welding


Stir zone


Tool-assisted friction welding


Threaded hole friction stir welding


Tungsten inert gas welding


Thermomechanically affected zone


Technique for order of performance by similarity to ideal solution


The Welding Institute


Ultimate lap shear force


Ultrasonic recrystallization factor


Ultimate tensile strength


Vertical compensation friction stir welding


Vaporizing foil actuator welding


Volumetric ratio


Tungsten carbide


Yield strength



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Forming Technology and Materials Lab, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyImam Khomeini International UniversityQazvinIran

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