Optimisation of graphene grown from solid waste using CVD method

  • Noor Ayuma Mat Tahir
  • Mohd Fadzli Bin AbdollahEmail author
  • Noreffendy Tamaldin
  • Mohd Rody Bin Mohamad Zin
  • Hilmi Amiruddin


This paper discusses the optimisation of graphene grown from solid waste products, particularly fruit cover plastic waste and oil palm fibre. It involved a method known as chemical vapour deposition, where a copper sheet was used as the substrate. L9 Taguchi arrays were created based on three parameters, namely, the type of gas, substrate temperature, and growth time. The Raman spectrum analysis was selected as the response, where the I2D/IG ratio was taken into consideration to determine the type of graphene that was produced (whether single-layered or multi-layered). Then, the optimum graphene coating synthesised was tested under a dry sliding test at different applied loads. According to the signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance, the optimum parameters for growing graphene were 90 min of growing time at a temperature of 1020 °C using only argon gas for fruit cover plastic waste, and 30 min of growing time at a temperature of 1000 °C using argon and hydrogen gas for oil palm fibre. An error of between 13 and 17% was observed between the experimental result and the predicted value. The tribological performance for both graphenes shows promising potentials as friction reduction materials with OPF coating are suggested as the best type of coating synthesised.


Graphene CVD ANOVA Taguchi Raman spectrum analysis 



The authors gratefully acknowledge contributions from the members of the Green Tribology and Engine Performance (G-Tribo-E) research group, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

Funding information

This research is supported by a grant from Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (grant number: PJP/2019/FKM(11A)/S01684).


  1. 1.
    Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant AV (2014) Graphene: a new emerging lubricant. Mater Today 17:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhai W, Shi X, Wang M, Xu Z, Yao J, Song S (2014) Grain refinement: a mechanism for graphene nanoplatelets to reduce friction and wear of Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composites. Wear 310(1–2):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bressan J, Daros D (2008) Influence of hardness on the wear resistance of 17-4 PH stainless steel evaluated by the pin-on-disc testing. J Mater Process Technol 205:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56(8):1178–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Watanabe K, Seki K, Tadano H, Kaiser F (2017) A Study on the friction reduction of seal ring for automatic transmission by applying surface texture. Tribol Online 12(3):151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li Y, Zhu Y, Ye Q, Zhang S, Zhao J, He Y (2018) Effect of hybrid surface treatment composed of plasma nitriding and W-Cr-Ti-Al-N coating on tribological behavior of AISI 316L steel. Tribol Online 13(6):316–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ibrahim MD, Marusman N, Sunami Y, Azli A, Ochiai M, Azizah SN (2018) Characteristic of modified spiral bearing and its seals effect through geometries and dimension modification. Tribol Online 13(6):334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abdollah MFB, Yamaguchi Y, Akao T, Inayoshi N, Miyamoto N, Tokoroyama T, Umehara N (2012) Deformation-wear transition map of DLC coating under cyclic impact loading. Wear 274–275:435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Batzill M (2012) The surface science of graphene: metal interfaces, CVD synthesis, nanoribbons, chemical modifications, and defects. Surf Sci Rep 67(3–4):83–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Findik F (2014) Latest progress on tribological properties of industrial materials. Mater Des 57:218–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mohmad M, Abdollah MFB, Tamaldin N, Amiruddin H (2017) Frictional characteristics of laser surface textured activated carbon composite derived from palm kernel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(5-8):2943–2949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saiful Badri MA, Mat Salleh M, Md Noor NF, Abd Rahman MY, Umar AA (2017) Green synthesis of few-layered graphene from aqueous processed graphite exfoliation for graphene thin film preparation. Mater Chem Phys 193:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mohmad M, Abdollah MFB, Khudhair AQ, Tamaldin N, Amiruddin H, Mohamad Zin MR (2018) Physical-mechanical properties of palm kernel activated carbon reinforced polymeric composite: potential as a self-lubricating material. J Tribol 17:77–92Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kamiya S, Desaki T (2017) Technical trend of friction reduction in engine bearings. Tribol Online 12(3):89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nakamura T (2017) Improvement of fuel efficiency of passenger cars by taking advantage of tribology. Tribol Online 12(3):76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fontaine J, Donnet C, Grill A, LeMogne T (2001) Tribochemistry between hydrogen and diamond-like carbon films. Surf Coat Technol 146–147:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brostow W, Kovačevic V, Vrsaljko D, Whitworth J (2010) Tribology of polymers and polymer-based composites. J Mater Educ 32:273–290Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hirai Y, Sato T, Usami H (2016) Combined effects of graphite and sulfide on the tribological properties of bronze under dry conditions. J Tribol 11:14–23Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zamri Y, Shamsul JB (2011) Physical properties and wear behaviour of aluminium matrix composite reinforced with palm shell activated carbon (PSAC). Kovove Mater 49:287–295Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prabu V, Manikandan V, Uthayakumar M (2012) Friction and dry sliding wear behaviour of red mud filled banana fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composite using taguchi approach. Mater Phys Mech 15:34–45Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nirmal U, Hashim J, Ahmad MMHM (2015) A review on tribological performance of natural fibre polymeric composites. Tribol Int 83:77–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mat Tahir MA, Abdollah MFB, Hasan R, Amiruddin H (2016) The effect of sliding distance at different temperatures on the tribological properties of a palm kernel activated carbon-epoxy composite. Tribol Int 94:352–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mahmud DNF, Abdollah MFB, Masripan A, Tamaldin N, Amiruddin H (2017) Frictional wear stability mechanisms of an activated carbon composite derived from palm kernel by phase transformation study. Indust Lubricat Tribol 69(6):945–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang Y, Li J, Dang C, Wang Y, Zhu Y (2017) Influence of carbon contents on the structure and tribocorrosion properties of TiSiCN coatings on Ti6Al4V. Tribol Int 109:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar P, Wani MF (2017) Synthesis and tribological properties of graphene: a review. J Tribol 13:36–71Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Najar KA, Sheikh NA, Shah MA (2016) Effect of CVD-diamond coatings on the tribological performance of cemented tungsten carbide substrates. J Tribol 9:1–17Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Al-Shurman KM and Naseem H (2014) CVD Graphene growth mechanism on nickel thin films. Proceeding of COMSOL Conferrence in BostonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Arco LG, Zhang Y, Kumar A, Zhou C (2009) Synthesis, transfer, and devices of single-and few-layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 8(2):135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wintterlin J, Bocquet ML (2009) Graphene on metal surfaces. Surf Sci 603(10–12):1841–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salifairus MJ, Hamid SBA, Soga T, Alrokayan SAH, Khan HA, Rusop M (2016) Structural and optical properties of graphene from green carbon source via thermal chemical vapor deposition. J Mater Res 31(13):1947–1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Won MS, Penkov OV, Kim DE (2013) Durability and degradation mechanism of graphene coatings deposited on Cu substrates under dry contact sliding. Carbon 54:472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ye S, Ullah K, Zhu L, Ali A, Kweon W, Oh W (2015) CVD growth of large-area graphene over Cu foil by atmospheric pressure and its application in H2 evolution. Solid State Sci 46:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sharma S, Kalita G, Hirani R, Shinde SM, Papon R, Ohtani H, Tanemura M (2014) Synthesis of graphene crystals from solid waste plastic by chemical vapor deposition. Carbon 72:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant AV (2013) Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces. Carbon 54:454–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim JG, Kim WS, Kim YH, Lim CH, Choi DJ (2013) Formation of graphene on SiC by chemical vapor deposition with liquid sources. Surf Coat Technol 231:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Higuchi T, Mabuchi Y, Ichihara H, Murata T, Moronuki M (2017) Development of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon coating for piston rings. Tribol Online 12(3):117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vlassiouk I, Regmi M, Fulvio P, Dai S, Datskos P, Eres G, Smirnov S (2011) Role of hydrogen in chemical vapor deposition growth of large single-crystal graphene. ACS Nano 5(7):6069–6076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Salifairus MJ, Hamid SBA, Alrokayan SAH, Khan HA, and Rusop M (2015) The effect of synthesis time on graphene growth from palm oil as green carbon precursor. International Conferrence of Nano-electronic Technology Devices & Materials (IC-NET 2015) 1–6Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ji H, Hao Y, Ren Y, Charlton M, Lee WH, Wu Q, Li H, Zhu Y (2011) Feedstock and hydrogen graphene growth using a solid carbon feedstock and hydrogen. ACS Nano 5:7656–7661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shinde SM, Kano E, Kalita G, Takeguchi M, Hashimoto A, Tanemura M (2016) Grain structures of nitrogen-doped graphene synthesized by solid source-based chemical vapor deposition. Carbon 96:448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shah J, Lopez-mercado J, Carreon MG, Lopez-miranda A, Carreon ML (2018) Plasma synthesis of graphene from mango peel. ACS Omega 3(1):455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ruan G, Sun Z, Peng Z, Tour MJ (2011) Growth of graphene from food, insects, and waste. ACS Nano 5(9):7601–7607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferrari AC, Basko DM (2013) Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Nat Nanotechnol 8(4):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    N, Z., Wang Y, Yu T, Shen Z (2008) Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene. Nano Research, 1(4): 273-291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Childres I, Jauregui LA, Park W, Cao H, Chen YP (2013) Raman spectroscopy of graphene and related materials. New Developments in Photon and Materials Research: 1-20.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Salifairus MJ, Abd Hamid SB, Soga T, Alrokayan SAH, Khan HA, Rusop M (2016) Structural and optical properties of graphene from green carbon source via thermal chemical vapor deposition. J Mater Res 31(13):1947–1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Park JS, Reina A, Saito R, Kong J, Dresselhaus G, Dresselhaus MS (2009) G′band Raman spectra of single, double and triple layer graphene. Carbon 47(5):1303–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaniyoor A, Ramaprabhu S (2012) A Raman spectroscopic investigation of graphite oxide derived graphene. AIP Adv 2:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Li X, Cai W, Colombo L, Ruoff RS (2009) Evolution of graphene growth on Ni and Cu by carbon isotope labeling. Nano Lett 9(12):4268–4272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ferrari AC (2007) Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun 143(1–2):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fakulti Kejuruteraan MekanikalUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia MelakaMelakaMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Advanced Research on EnergyUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia MelakaMelakaMalaysia

Personalised recommendations