Advertisement

Comparative tool wear and hole quality investigation in drilling of aerospace grade T800 CFRP using different external cooling lubricants

  • Guoyi Hou
  • Jianping Qiu
  • Kaifu ZhangEmail author
  • Sipeng Cao
  • Hui Cheng
  • Bin Luo
  • Yi Cheng
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

The T800 Carbon fiber reinforced polymer/plastic (CFRP) has been increasingly used for its considerable specific strength/modules to manufacture the primary load-carrying structures in aerospace industry. The abrasive carbon fibers can cause rapid tool wear in CFRP drilling, which deteriorate the quality of hole wall and result in unpredictable decrease of bearing capacity. In order to effectively reduce the tool wear, a cooling method namely external cooling lubrication (ECL) is applied in this study by using two different lubricants (Boelube 70104 and Castrol Syntilo 9828). The results show that Boelube 70104 lubricant exhibits the maximum flank wear (VB) reduction (34.5%) as compared to dry drilling after drilling 30 holes. And, the maximum CER reduction (57.4%) is obtained by using Castrol Syntilo 9828 lubricant. Different from previous researches, the maximum thrust force of drilling process using ECL presents obvious decrease as compared to dry drilling. And, the value of surface roughness (Ra) exhibits an obvious decrease when using Boelube 70104 lubricant. Two main different mechanisms for Ra decrease namely reducing surface cavity at FCA of 90° < θ < 180° and reducing saw-tooth surfaces at FCA of 0° < θ < 90° are separately observed for Boelube 70104 and Castrol Syntilo 9828 separately.

Keywords

Tool wear CFRP drilling External cooling lubrication Surface roughness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are willing to acknowledge the editors and reviewers for their penetrating comments.

Funding information

This study is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 5170546), the Prize-winning Achievement Conversion Project in Shaanxi Province of China (No. 2018HJCG-23) and the National Science and Technology Major Projects of ??? Numerical Control Machine Tool and Based Manufacturing Equipment of China (No. 2018ZX04006001-008).

References

  1. 1.
    Dandekar CR, Shin YC (2012) Modeling of machining of composite materials: a review. Int J Mach Tool Manu 57:102–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luo B, Li Y, Zhang KF, Cheng H, Liu SN (2015) A novel prediction model for thrust force and torque in drilling interface region of CFRP/Ti stacks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(9-12):1497–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu JY, Mkaddem A, El Mansori M (2016) Recent advances in drilling hybrid FRP/Ti composite: a state-of-the-art review. Compos Struct 135:316–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuo C, Wang C, Ko S (2018) Wear behaviour of CVD diamond-coated tools in the drilling of woven CFRP composites. Wear 398:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.11.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Merino-Perez JL, Royer R, Ayvar-Soberanis S, Merson E, Hodzic A (2015) On the temperatures developed in CFRP drilling using uncoated WC-Co tools Part I: workpiece constituents, cutting speed and heat dissipation. Compos Struct 123:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abhishek K, Datta S, Mahapatra SS (2015) Optimization of thrust, torque, entry, and exist delamination factor during drilling of CFRP composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76(1-4):401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Celik A, Lazoglu I, Kara A, Kara F (2015) Wear on SiAlON ceramic tools in drilling of aerospace grade CFRP composites. Wear 338:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheng H, Gao J, Kafka OL, Zhang K, Luo B, Liu WK (2017) A micro-scale cutting model for UD CFRP composites with thermo-mechanical coupling. Compos Sci Technol 153:18–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.09.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramirez C, Poulachon G, Rossi F, M'Saoubi R (2014) Tool wear monitoring and hole surface quality during CFRP drilling. 2nd Cirp Conference on Surface Integrity (Csi) 13:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rawat S, Attia H (2009) Wear mechanisms and tool life management of WC-Co drills during dry high speed drilling of woven carbon fibre composites. Wear 267(5-8):1022–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montoya M, Calamaz M, Gehin D, Girot F (2013) Evaluation of the performance of coated and uncoated carbide tools in drilling thick CFRP/aluminium alloy stacks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(9-12):2111–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang B, Yin WDA, Wang MH, Zheng YH, Li XP, Ma ZB (2017) Edge chipping mechanism and failure time prediction on carbide cemented tool during drilling of CFRP/Ti stack. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9-12):3015–3024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang FJ, Qian BW, Jia ZY, Fu R, Cheng D (2017) Secondary cutting edge wear of one-shot drill bit in drilling CFRP and its impact on hole quality. Compos Struct 178:341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raj DS, Karunamoorthy L (2017) Cutting edge-flatting and roughness measurement-to monitor blunting and chipping of the drill cutting edge when drilling CFRP. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(1-4):953–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang L, Liu Z, Tian W, Liao WH (2015) Experimental studies on the performance of different structure tools in drilling CFRP/Al alloy stacks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1-4):241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shyha I, Soo SL, Aspinwall D, Bradley S (2010) Effect of laminate configuration and feed rate on cutting performance when drilling holes in carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites. J Mater Process Technol 210(8):1023–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang X, Kwona PY, Sturtevant C, Kim D, Lantrip J (2013) Tool wear of coated drills in drilling CFRP. J Manuf Process 15(1):127–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2012.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Faraz A, Biermann D, Weinert K (2009) Cutting edge rounding: an innovative tool wear criterion in drilling CFRP composite laminates. Int J Mach Tool Manu 49(15):1185–1196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2009.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wyen CF, Knapp W, Wegener K (2012) A new method for the characterisation of rounded cutting edges. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 59(9-12):899–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rech J, Yen YC, Schaff MJ, Hamdi H, Altan T, Bouzakis KD (2005) Influence of cutting edge radius on the wear resistance of PM-HSS milling inserts. Wear 259:1168–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bergmann B, Grove T (2018) Basic principles for the design of cutting edge roundings. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 67(1):73–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2018.04.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fu R, Jia ZY, Wang FJ, Jin Y, Sun D, Yang LJ, Cheng D (2018) Drill-exit temperature characteristics in drilling of UD and MD CFRP composites based on infrared thermography. Int J Mach Tool Manu 135:24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poulachon G, Outeiro J, Ramirez C, Andre V, Abrivard G (2016) Hole surface topography and tool wear in CFRP drilling. 3rd Cirp Conference on Surface Integrity 45:35–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fernandez-Perez J, Cantero JL, Diaz-Alvarez J, Miguelez MH (2017) Influence of cutting parameters on tool wear and hole quality in composite aerospace components drilling. Compos Struct 178:157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Madhavan V, Lipczynski G, Lane B, Whitenton E (2015) Fiber orientation angle effects in machining of unidirectional CFRP laminated composites. J Manuf Process 20:431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gaugel S, Sripathy P, Haeger A, Meinhard D, Bernthaler T, Lissek F, Kaufeld M, Knoblauch V, Schneider G (2016) A comparative study on tool wear and laminate damage in drilling of carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Compos Struct 155:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang FJ, Qian BW, Jia ZY, Cheng D, Fu R (2018) Effects of cooling position on tool wear reduction of secondary cutting edge corner of one-shot drill bit in drilling CFRP. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(9-12):4277–4287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khairusshima MKN, Hassan CHC, Jaharah AG, Amin AKM, Idriss ANM (2013) Effect of chilled air on tool wear and workpiece quality during milling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic. Wear 302(1-2):1113–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abish J, Samal P, Narenther MS, Kannan C, Balan ASS (2018) Assessment of drilling-induced damage in CFRP under chilled air environment. Mater Manuf Process 33(12):1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xia T, Kaynak Y, Arvin C, Jawahir IS (2016) Cryogenic cooling-induced process performance and surface integrity in drilling CFRP composite material. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82(1-4):605–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumaran ST, Ko TJ, Li CP, Yu Z, Uthayakumar M (2017) Rotary ultrasonic machining of woven CFRP composite in a cryogenic environment. J Alloys Compd 698:984–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Meshreki M, Damir A, Sadek A, Attia MH (2016) Investigation of drilling of CFRP-aluminum stacks under different cooling modes. ASME 2016 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition pp V002T02A011–V002T02A011.  https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2016-67039
  33. 33.
    Iskandar Y, Tendolkar A, Attia MH, Hendrick P, Damir A, Diakodimitris C (2014) Flow visualization and characterization for optimized MQL machining of composites. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 63(1):77–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2014.03.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonnet C, Poulachon G, Rech J, Girard Y, Costes JP (2015) CFRP drilling: fundamental study of local feed force and consequences on hole exit damage. Int J Mach Tool Manu 94:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang C, Liu G, An Q, Chen M (2017) Occurrence and formation mechanism of surface cavity defects during orthogonal milling of CFRP laminates. Compos B Eng 109:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoyi Hou
    • 1
  • Jianping Qiu
    • 2
  • Kaifu Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sipeng Cao
    • 1
  • Hui Cheng
    • 1
  • Bin Luo
    • 1
  • Yi Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.AVIC Xi’an Aircraft Industry (Group) Company Ltd.Xi’anChina

Personalised recommendations