Advertisement

Assessment of tool wear and microstructural alteration of the cutting tools in conventional and sustainable slot milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

  • Ashutosh Khatri
  • Muhammd P. JahanEmail author
  • Jianfeng Ma
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This research presents both qualitative and quantitative analyses of tool wear during slot milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under conventional flood coolant and sustainable dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining conditions. The microstructures of the cutting tools near the cutting edges have been analyzed for understanding the effectiveness of tool coating and the influence of tool wear and machining conditions on the tool microstructure. The abrasion wear was measured using maximum flank wear (VBmax) and the length over which the flank wear occurred. The chipping wear was measured using the surface area of the material chipped off from the cutting edge or tool nose. In addition, the correlations between the abrasion and chipping wear with plastic failure were investigated. It was found that the average magnitudes of VBmax and length were lower in MQL machining. The calculations of the surface area of chipped materials indicate comparatively lower chipping wear in MQL machining. Both the abrasion and chipping wear occurred along with plastic failure, indicating correlations among those wear mechanisms. It turned out that the TiAlN-coating was more effective in the reduction of tool wear under dry machining conditions. Delamination wear was observed under flood and MQL conditions, illustrating the effectiveness of coated tools under dry machining conditions. The microstructural analysis of the worn-out uncoated tools indicates plastic deformation and grain refinement underneath the tool wear, whereas this effect is less severe in coated tools. Conclusively, sustainable dry machining with TiAlN-coated tools and MQL machining resulted lesser tool wear, indicating the effectiveness of sustainable machining processes for Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

Keywords

Tool wear mechanisms Tool coating Tool microstructure Conventional machining Sustainable machining 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would also like to thank the Miami University Center for Advanced Microscopy (CAMI) to provide free access to the microscopy facilities.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge financial support from the Miami University CFR grant and OSGC FRIGP grant.

References

  1. 1.
    Ezugwu EO, Bonney J, Yamane Y (2003) An Overview of the Machinability of Aeroengine Alloys. J Mater Process Technol 134:233–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khatri A, Jahan MP (2018) Investigating tool wear mechanisms in machining of Ti-6Al-4V in flood coolant, dry and MQL conditions. Proc Manuf 26:434–445Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schoop J, Sales WF, Jawahir IS (2017) High speed cryogenic finish machining of Ti-6Al4V with polycrystalline diamond tools. J Mater Process Technol 250:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sartori S, Ghiotti A, Bruschi S (2018) Solid lubricant-assisted minimum quantity lubrication and cooling strategies to improve Ti6Al4V machinability in finishing turning. Tribol Int 118:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nath C, Kapoor SG, Srivastava AK (2017) Finish turning of Ti-6Al-4V with the atomization-based cutting fluid(ACF) spray system. J Manuf Process 28:464–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bermingham MJ, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS (2012) Understanding the tool wear mechanism during thermally assisted machining Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 62:76–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Armendia M, Garay A, Iriarte L-M, Arrazola P-J (2010) Comparison of the machinabilities of Ti6Al4V and TIMETAL® 54 M using uncoated WC–Co tools. J Mater Process Technol 210:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Mo JPT (2014) Evolution of tool wear and its effect on cutting forces during dry machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J Eng Manuf 228(2):191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS (2015) Effect of cryogenic compressed air on the evolution of cutting force and tool wear during machining of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. J Mater Process Technol 221:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zanger F, Schulze V (2013) Investigations on mechanisms of tool wear in machining of Ti-6Al-4V using FEM simulation. Proc CIRP 8:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nguyen D, Kang D, Bieler T, Park K, Kwon P (2017) Microstructural impact on flank wear during turning of various Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Wear 384–385:72–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Venugopal KA, Paul S, Chattopadhyay AB (2007) Tool wear in cryogenic turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cryogenics. 47:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Venugopal KA, Paulb S, Chattopadhyay AB (2007) Growth of tool wear in turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under cryogenic cooling. Wear 262:1071–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hardt M, Klocke F, Döbbeler B, Binder M, Jawahir IS (2018) Experimental study on surface integrity of cryogenically machined Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical devices. Proc CIRP 71:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bermingham MJ, Kirsch J, Sun S, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS (2011) New observations on tool life, cutting forces and chip morphology in cryogenic machining Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51:500–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ma J, Ge X, Lei S (2013) Energy efficiency in thermally assisted machining of titanium alloy: a numerical study. Trans ASME J Manuf Sci Eng 135:061001 (6 pages).  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4025610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Z, An Q, Xu J, Chen M, Han S (2013) Wear performance of (nc-AlTiN)/ (a-Si3N4) coating and (nc-AlCrN)/(a- Si3N4) coating in high-speed machining of titanium alloys under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions. Wear. 305:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ibrahim GA, Che-Haron CH, Ghani JA (2010) Tool wear mechanism in continuous cutting of difficult-to-cut material under dry machining. Adv Mater Res 126-128:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    An Q, Chen J, Tao Z, Ming W, Chen M (2019) Experimental investigation on tool wear characteristics of PVD and CVD coatings during face milling of Ti-6242S and Ti-555 titanium alloys. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2019.105091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bhaumik SK, Divakar C, Singh AK (1995) Machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a wBN-cBN composite tool. Mater Des 16(4):221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Özel T, Sima M, Srivastava AK, Kaftanoglu B (2010) Investigations on the effects of multi-layered coated inserts in machining Ti–6Al–4V alloy with experiments and finite element simulations, CIRP Ann. Manuf Technol 59:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    da Silva RB, Machado AR, Ezugwu EO, Bonney J, Sales WF (2013) Tool life and wear mechanisms in high speed machining of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with PCD tools under various coolant pressures. J Mater Process Technol 213:1459–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sadik MI, Coronel E, Lattemann M (2019) Influence of characteristic properties of PCD grades on the wear development in turning of β-titanium alloy (Ti5Al5V5Mo3Cr). Wear. 426–427:1594–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mia M, Dhar NR (2018) Effects of duplex jets high-pressure coolant on machining temperature and machinability of Ti-6Al-4V superalloy. J Mater Process Technol 252:688–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hughes JI, Sharman ARC, Ridgway K (2006) The effect of cutting tool material and edge geometry on tool life and workpiece surface integrity. J Eng Manuf 220:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nouari M, Makich H (2014) On the physics of machining titanium alloys: interactions between cutting parameters, microstructure and tool wear. Metals. 4:335–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang Y, Zou B, Wang J, Wu Y, Huang C (2020) Effect of the progressive tool wear on surface topography and chip formation T in micro-milling of Ti–6Al–4V using Ti(C7N3)-based cermet micro-mill. Tribol Int 141:105900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang X, Liu Z, Yao G, Wang B, Ren X (2019) Investigation of surface topography and its deterioration resulting from tool T wear evolution when dry turning of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4 V. Tribol Int 135:130–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nath C, Kapoor SG, DeVor RE, Srivastava AK, Iverson J (2012) Design and evaluation of an atomization-based cutting fluid spray system in turning of titanium alloy. J Manuf Process 14:452–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ganguli S, Kapoor SG (2016) Improving the performance of milling of titanium alloys using the atomization-based cutting fluid application system. J Manuf Process 23:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shokrani A, Al-Samarrai I, Newman ST (2019) 2019. Hybrid cryogenic MQL for improving tool life in machining of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. J Manuf Process 43:229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sun J, Liao X, Yang S, Chen W (2019) Study on predictive modeling for thermal wear of uncoated carbide tool during machining of Ti–6Al–4 V. Ceram Int 45:15262–15271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rao B, Dandekar CR, Shin YC (2011) An experimental and numerical study on the face milling of Ti–6Al–4V alloy: tool performance and surface integrity. J Mater Process Technol 211:294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Su Y, He N, Li L, Li XL (2006) An experimental investigation of effects of cooling/lubrication conditions on tool wear in high-speed end milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Wear 261(7-8):760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    KuczmAszewski J, Zaleski K, Matuszak J, Palka T, Mądry J (2017) Studies on the effect of mill microstructure upon tool life during slot milling of Ti6Al4V alloy parts. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability 19(4):590–596.  https://doi.org/10.17531/ein.2017.4.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashutosh Khatri
    • 1
  • Muhammd P. Jahan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jianfeng Ma
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace and Mechanical EngineeringSaint Louis UniversitySaint LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations