Advertisement

Grinding performance of AISI D6 steel using CBN wheel vitrified and resinoid bonded

  • Bruno Kenta SatoEmail author
  • Rafael Lemes Rodriguez
  • Anthony Gaspar Talon
  • José Claudio Lopes
  • Hamilton José Mello
  • Paulo Roberto Aguiar
  • Eduardo Carlos Bianchi
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

In the last decades, manufacturers attracted much attention to developing processes with competitivity, sustainability, and productivity. One of the most important developments was related to employing more efficient tools. CBN was developed to improve the performance of the abrasive materials by higher hardness, thermal conduction, and chemical stability. In this sense, not only abrasive grains’ properties are important for tool performance, but also bonds are essential for the consolidation of CBN abrasives in manufacturing industry. In order to contribute to findings about the performance of applied bonds in CBN grinding wheels, this work aims to compare CBN grinding wheels composed of vitrified bond and resinoid bond. The workpiece material was AISI D6 special steel which is widely used to manufacture stamping matrix, and this application requires parts with high geometrical and dimensional precision, also high-quality surface finish. For the results analysis and discussion, tangential grinding force and acoustic emission were monitored in order to analyze the process efficiency and surface roughness and G ratio was measured; besides scanning electron, confocal microscopy and optical microscopy were used for the analysis of the ground surface. The vitrified bond provided more efficient results in terms of surface roughness and G ratio in comparison with resinoid bond. However, acoustic emission and tangential grinding force were lower in grinding with CBN resinoid bond what indicated lower mechanical loads. Therefore, this paper presents relevant information to select the appropriate bond to CBN grinding wheel application.

Keywords

Peripheral surface grinding CBN grinding wheel Vitrified bond Resinoid bond Acoustic emission G ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors also thank companies Nikkon Ferramentas de Corte Ltda-Saint Gobain Group for providing the grinding wheel and ITW Chemical Products for the donation the cutting fluids, and the authors thank everyone by support to the research and opportunity for scientific and technological development.

Funding information

The authors received financial support from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (processes, 2015/09197-7, 2015/09868-9, and 2017/03788-9), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel), and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for their financial support of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Bianchi EC, Rodriguez RL, Hildebrandt RA, Lopes JC, de Mello HJ, da Silva RB, de Aguiar PR (2018) Plunge cylindrical grinding with the minimum quantity lubrication coolant technique assisted with wheel cleaning system. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:2907–2916.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1396-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bianchi EC, Sato BK, Sales AR, Lopes JC, de Mello HJ, de Angelo Sanchez LE, Diniz AE, Aguiar PR (2018) Evaluating the effect of the compressed air wheel cleaning in grinding the AISI 4340 steel with CBN and MQL with water. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:2855–2864.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1433-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sato BK, Sales AR, Lopes JC, Sanchez LEA, Mello HJ, Aguiar PR, Bianchi EC (2018) Influence of water in the MQL technique in the grinding of steel AISI 4340 using CBN wheels. REM, Int Eng J 71(3):391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahrens M, Damm J, Dagen M, Denkena B, Ortmaier T (2017) Estimation of dynamic grinding wheel wear in plunge grinding. Procedia CIRP 5:422–427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ye R, Jiang X, Blunt L, Cui C, Yu Q (2016) The application of 3D-motif analysis to characterize diamond grinding wheel topography. Meas J Int 77:73–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biermann D, Würz E (2009) A study of grinding silicon nitride and cemented carbide materials with diamond grinding wheels. Prod Eng 3:411–416.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-009-0183-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Habrat WF (2016) Effect of bond type and process parameters on grinding force components in grinding of cemented carbide. Procedia Eng 149:122–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rasim M, Mattfeld P, Klocke F (2015) Analysis of the grain shape influence on the chip formation in grinding. J of Mater Processing Technol 226:60–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.06.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palmer J, Curtis D, Novovic D, Ghadbeigi H (2018) The influence of abrasive grit morphology on the wheel topography and grinding performance, 8th CIRP Conference on High Perform. Cut (HPC 2018) 77:239–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2018.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhowmik S, Naik R (2016) Selection of abrasive materials for manufacturing grinding wheels. Mat Today: Proc 5:2860–2864.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.01.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bianchi EC, Rodriguez RL, Hildebrandt RA, Lopes JC, de Mello HJ, de Aguiar PR, Jackson MJ (2018, 2018) Application of the auxiliary wheel cleaning jet in the plunge cylindrical grinding with minimum quantity lubrication technique under various flow rates. Proc. of the Inst. Of mechanical engineers. Part B: J Eng Manuf.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405418774599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodriguez RL, Hildebrandt RA, Lopes JC, Mello HJ, Silva RB, Aguiar PR, Bianchi EC (2017) Application viability evaluation of the minimum quantity lubrication coolant technique under different flow rates in plunge cylindrical grinding of the ABNT 4340 steel with aluminum oxide wheel. REM, Int Eng J, Ouro Preto 70(4):429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Linke B, Klocke F (2010) Temperatures and wear mechanisms in dressing of vitrified bonded grinding wheels. Int J of Mach Tool & Manuf 50:552–558.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rom M, Brakhage K-H, Barth S, Wrobel C, Mattfeld P, Klocke F (2018) Mathematical modeling of ceramic bond bridges in grinding wheels. Math Comput Simul 147:220–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2017.02.002 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Winter M, Ibbotson S, Kara S, Herrmann C (2015) Life cycle assessment of cubic boron nitrite grinding wheels. J of Clean Prod 107:707–721.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li H, Axite D (2016) Texture grinding wheels: a review. Int J of Machine Tool & Manuf 109:8–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2016.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kropac J, Krajnik P (2006) High performance grinding—a review. J of Mat Proc Tech 175:278–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.04.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    SHI J, HE F, XIE J, LIU X, YANG H (2019) Effect of heat treatments on the Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-BaO glass-ceramic bond and the glass-ceramic bond CBN grinding tools. Int J Refract Met Hard Mat 78:201–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2018.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    LINKE BS (2014) Sustainability concerns in the life cycle of bonded grinding tools. CIRP J of Manuf Science and Tech 7:258–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirpj.2014.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nadolny K, Kapłonek K, Wojtewicz MWS (2013) The assessment of sulfurization influence on cutting ability of the grinding wheels in internal cylindrical grinding of Titanium Grade 2®. Indian J Eng Mat Sci 20(2):108–124Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsai MY, Jian SX (2012) Development of a micro-graphite impregnated grinding wheel. Int. J. of Machine Tools & Manuf. 56:94–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2012.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaplonek W, Nadolny K (2013) The diagnostics of abrasive tools after internal cylindrical grinding of hard-to-cut materials by means of a laser technique using imaging and analysis of scattered light. Arabian J for Science and Eng 38(4):953–970.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0374-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    LV W, LI Z, ZHU Y, ZHAO J, ZHAO G (2013) Effect of PMMA pore former on microstructure and mechanical properties of vitrified bond CBN grinding wheels. Ceram Int 39:1893–1899.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.08.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    KOPAC J, KRAJNIK P (2006) High-performance grinding—a review. J of Mat Process Tech 175:278–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.04.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    HERMAN D, KRZOS J (2009) Influence of vitrified bond structure on radial wear of cBN grinding wheels. J. of Mat. Process. Tech. 209:5377–5386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2009.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Mello HJ, de Mello DR, Rodriguez RL, Lopes JC, da Silva RB, de Angelo Sanchez LE, Hildebrandt RA, Aguiar PR, Bianchi EC (2018) Contribution to cylindrical grinding of interrupted surfaces of hardened steel with medium grit wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:4049–4057.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1552-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marinescu ID, Rowe WB, Dimitrov B, Inasaki I (2013) Tribology of abrasive machining processes, 2ªed. ed. William Andrew Inc, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Luo SY, Liu YC, Chou CC, Chen TC (2001) Performance of powder filled resin-bonded diamond wheels in the vertical dry grinding of tungsten carbide. J Mat Process Tech. 118:329–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00861-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lopes JC, Ventura CEH, Rodriguez RL, Talon AG, Volpato RS, Sato BK, de Mello HJ, de Aguiar PR, Bianchi EC (2018) Application of minimum quantity lubrication with addition of water in the grinding of alumina. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97:1951–1959.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2085-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rowe W B (2014) Principles of modern grinding technology, 2° ed. Waltham, William AndrewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arum A, Rameshkumar K, Unnikrisshman D, Sumesh A (2018) Tool condition monitoring of cylindrical grinding process using acoustic emission sensor. Mat Today: Proc 5:11888–11899.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.02.162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Babel R, Kosh P, Weiss M (2013) Acoustic emission spikes at workpiece edges in grinding: origin and applications. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 64:96–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2012.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    King RI; Hann RS 1992 “Handbook of modern grinding technology.” 3 ed. cap.6, , p.119–167Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lopes JC, de Martini Fernandes L, Domingues BB, Canarim RC, Fonseca MDPC, de Angelo Sanchez LE et al (2019) Effect of CBN grain friability in hardened steel plunge grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03654-w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rodriguez RL, Lopes JC, Hildebrandt RA, Perez RRV, Diniz AE, de Ângelo Sanchez LE, Rodrigues AR, de Mello HJ, de Aguiar PR, Bianchi EC (2019) Evaluation of grinding process using simultaneously MQL technique and cleaning jet on grinding wheel surface. J Mater Process Technol 271:357–367.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Malkin S; Guo C 2008. Grinding technology: theory and application of machining with abrasives. Industrial Press Inc.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    de Martini Fernandes L, Lopes JC, Volpato RS, Diniz AE, de Oliveira RFM, de Aguiar PR, de Mello HJ, Bianchi EC (2018) Comparative analysis of two CBN grinding wheels performance in nodular cast iron plunge grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98(1–4):237–249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2133-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silva LR, Bianchi EC, Catai RE, Fusse RY, França TV, Aguiar PR (2005) Study on the behavior of the minimum quantity lubricant— MQL technique under different lubricating and cooling conditions when grinding ABNT 4340 steel. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 27:192–199.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-58782005000200012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Kenta Sato
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rafael Lemes Rodriguez
    • 1
  • Anthony Gaspar Talon
    • 1
  • José Claudio Lopes
    • 1
  • Hamilton José Mello
    • 1
  • Paulo Roberto Aguiar
    • 1
  • Eduardo Carlos Bianchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSão Paulo State University “Júlio de Mesquita Filho,” Bauru campusBauruBrazil

Personalised recommendations