Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a low-carbon low-alloy steel produced by wire arc additive manufacturing

  • Mehran RafieazadEmail author
  • Mahya Ghaffari
  • Alireza Vahedi Nemani
  • Ali Nasiri


The emerging technology of wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has been enthusiastically embraced in recent years mainly by the welding community to fabricate various grades of structural materials. In this study, ER70S-6 low-carbon low-alloy steel wall was manufactured by WAAM method, utilizing a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) torch translated by a six-axis robotic arm, and employing advanced surface tension transfer (STT) mode. The dominant microstructure of the fabricated part contained randomly oriented fine polygonal ferrite and a low-volume fraction of lamellar pearlite as the primary micro-constituents. Additionally, a small content of bainite and acicular ferrite were also detected along the melt-pool boundaries, where the material undergoes a faster cooling rate during solidification in comparison with the center of the melt pool. Mechanical properties of the part, studied at different orientations relative to the building direction, revealed a comparable tensile strength along the deposition (horizontal) direction and the building (vertical) direction of the fabricated part (~ 400 MPa and ~ 500 MPa for the yield and ultimate tensile strengths, respectively). However, the obtained plastic tensile strain at failure along the horizontal direction was nearly three times higher than that of the vertical direction, implying some extent of anisotropy in ductility. The reduced ductility of the part along the building direction was associated with the higher density of the interpass regions and the melt-pool boundaries in the vertical direction, containing heat-affected zones with coarser grain structure, brittle martensite–austenite constituent, and possibly a higher density of discontinuities.


Additive manufacturing (AM) Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) Low-carbon low-alloy steel Microstructure Mechanical properties 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) (grant number RGPIN-2017-04368).


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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