Filling mechanism for prototype parts produced by vacuum differential pressure casting technology

  • Chil-Chyuan KuoEmail author
  • Wei-Kai Qiu
  • Hsueh-An Liu
  • Chao-Ming Chang


Vacuum casting (VC) is the most economical production process for producing small numbers of prototype parts under vacuum conditions. The filling of the casting material in the conventional VC process only depends on the gravity. Thus, some defects of the cast part are observed. In this study, differential pressure (DP) VC was proposed to reduce the filling time and improve the quality of cast parts. In this study, the filling mechanisms in both horizontal and vertical directions were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The actual filling situations of the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin in both the horizontal and vertical directions are similar to the simulation results. The relationship of the filling time for DP time, sprue diameters, and mold cavity capacities was investigated. The filling time can be estimated in terms of DP time, sprue diameter, and mold cavity capacity.


Filling mechanism Filling time Differential pressure Vacuum casting 


Funding information

The authors sincerely acknowledge financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under contract nos. MOST 107-2221-E-131-018, MOST 106-2221-E-131-010, MOST 106-2221-E-131-011, and MOST 105-2221-E-131-012.


  1. 1.
    Chong L, Ramakrishna S, Singh S (2018) A review of digital manufacturing-based hybrid additive manufacturing processes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(5–8):2281–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajaguru J, Duke M, Au C (2015) Development of rapid tooling by rapid prototyping technology and electroless nickel plating for low-volume production of plastic parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuo CC, Lin ZY (2011) Development of bridge tooling for fabricating mold inserts of aspheric optical lens. Mater Werkst 42(11):1019–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thian SCH, Tang Y, Tan WK, Fuh JYH, Wong YS, Loh HT, Lu L (2008) The manufacture of micromould and microparts by vacuum casting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 38(9–10):944–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kai CC, Howe CT, Hoe EK (1998) Integrating rapid prototyping and tooling with vacuum casting for connectors. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 14(9):617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang HG, Hu QX (2016) Study of the filling mechanism and parameter optimization method for vacuum casting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(5–8):711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Puerta APV, Sanchez DM, Batista M, Salguero J (2018) Criteria selection for a comparative study of functional performance of fused deposition modelling and vacuum casting processes. J Manuf Process 35:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao DY, Huang ZP, Wang MJ, Wang T, Jin Y (2012) Vacuum casting replication of micro-riblets on shark skin for drag-reducing applications. J Mater Process Technol 212(1):198–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ng WC, Seet HL, Lee KS, Ning N, Tai WX, Sutedja M, Fuh JYH, Li XP (2009) Micro-spike EEG electrode and the vacuum-casting technology for mass production. J Mater Process Technol 209(9):4434–4438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang Y, Tan WK, Fuh JYH, Loh HT, Wong YS, Thian SCH, Lu L (2007) Micro-mould fabrication for a micro-gear via vacuum casting. J Mater Process Technol 192–193:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xu N, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Lv T, Liu Y, Hu Q (2012) Analysis of vacuum casting pressure time and its influence on casting quality. Asian Simulation Conference AsiaSim 2012:76–83Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bikas H, Stavropoulos P, Chryssolouris G (2016) Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):389–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yan QS, Yu H, Lu G, Xiong BW, Xu S (2016) Density and solidification feeding model of vacuum counter-pressure cast aluminum alloy under grade-pressuring conditions. China Foundry 13(2):133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jin CK, Jang CH, Kang CG (2015) Vacuum die casting process and simulation for manufacturing 0.8 mm-thick aluminum plate with four maze shapes. Metals:192–205Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bharambe V, Parekh DP, Ladd C, Moussa K, Dickey MD, Adams JJ (2017) Vacuum-filling of liquid metals for 3D printed RF antennas. Additive Manufacturing 18:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang X, Zhang HG, Zhang ZY, Hu QX (2014) Process parameter prediction of differential pressure vacuum casting based on support vector machine. Key Eng Mater 621:633–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong XP, Huang NY, Wu SS (2005) Newly developed vacuum differential pressure casting of thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings. China Acad J 2:102–107Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhan SA, Song JT, Ding MH, Guo J, Liu HH (2017) A study of thin-walled ZL105A casting manufactured by vacuum differential pressure casting. Adv Eng Res 135:574–582Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuo CC, Wu MX (2017) Evaluation of service life of silicone rubber molds using vacuum casting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(9–12):3775–3781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guo W, Hua L, Mao H (2014) Minimization of sink mark depth in injection-molded thermoplastic through design of experiments and genetic algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72(1–4):365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yasin SBM, Mohd NF, Mahmud J, Whashilah NS, Razak Z (2018) A reduction of protector cover warpage via topology optimization. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98(9–12):2531–2537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kagitci YC, Tarakcioglu N (2016) The effect of weld line on tensile strength in a polymer composite part. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(5–8):1125–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moayyedian M, Abhary K, Marian R (2017) The analysis of short shot possibility in injection molding process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9–12):3977–3989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garg A, Bhattacharya A, Batish A (2017) Chemical vapor treatment of ABS parts built by FDM: analysis of surface finish and mechanical strength. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):2175–2191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bortoluzzi DB, Gomes GF, Hirayama D, Ancelotti AC Jr (2019) Development of a 3D reinforcement by tufting in carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(5–8):1593–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salam H, Dong Y, Davies IJ, Pramanik A (2016) The effects of material formulation and manufacturing process on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy/clay nanocomposites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(5–8):1999–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belkhir N, Chorfa A, Bouzid D (2016) Compression behavior of polyurethane polishers in optical polishing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(9–12):2595–2601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen X, Hu Z (2017) An effective method for fabricating microchannels on the polycarbonate (PC) substrate with CO2 laser. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(1–4):1365–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuo CC, Lin JX (2019) Fabrication of the Fresnel lens with liquid silicone rubber using rapid injection mold. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101(1–4):615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gao X, Li Y, Kong Q, Tan Q, Li C (2018) Uniform concentrating design and mold machining of Fresnel lens for photovoltaic systems. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(1–4):451–460Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kuo CC, Chen BC (2017) Development of hot embossing stamps with conformal cooling channels for microreplication. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9–12):2603–2608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lium KC, Yang CH, Liu TI, Chiu LY, Liu G (2017) On-stream inspection for pitting corrosion defect of pressure vessels for intelligent and safe manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(5–8):1957–1966Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cai Q, Tang D, Zhu H, Zhou J (2018) Research on key technologies for immune monitoring of intelligent manufacturing system. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(5–8):1607–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang, X., Ming, X., Liu, Z. et al. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2019)., An overall framework and subsystems for smart manufacturing integrated system (SMIS) from multi-layers based on multi-perspectives
  35. 35.
    Du Z, Yao X, Hou H, Yang J (2018) A fast way to determine temperature sensor locations in thermal error compensation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(1–4):455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sun Y, Vu TT, Halil Z, Yeo SH, Wee A (2017) Material removal prediction for contact wheels based on a dynamic pressure sensor. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(1–4):945–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Park H, Cha B, Cho S, Kim D, Choi JH, Pyo B-G, Rhee B (2016) A study on the estimation of plastic deformation of metal insert parts in multi-cavity injection molding by injection-structural coupled analysis. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(9–12):2057–2069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Safarian A, Subaşi M, Karataş Ç (2017) The effect of sintering parameters on diffusion bonding of 316L stainless steel in inserted metal injection molding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):2165–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ujah CO, Popoola API, Popoola OM, Aigbodion VS (2019) Optimisation of spark plasma sintering parameters of Al-CNTs-Nb nano-composite using Taguchi design of experiment. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(5–8):1563–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adnan MF, AbdullahE AB, Samad Z (2017) Springback behavior of AA6061 with non-uniform thickness section using Taguchi method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):2041–2052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Akıncıoglu S, Gokkaya H, Uygur I (2016) The effects of cryogenic-treated carbide tools on tool wear and surface roughness of turning of Hastelloy C22 based on Taguchi method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82(1–4):303–314Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Limon-Romero J, Tlapa D, Baez-Lopez Y, Maldonado-Macias A, Rivera-Cadavid L (2016) Application of the Taguchi method to improve a medical device cutting process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(9–12):3569–3577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Effertz PS, Quintino L, Infante V (2017) The optimization of process parameters for friction spot welded 7050-T76 aluminium alloy using a Taguchi orthogonal array. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9–12):3683–3695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hentati F, Hadriche I, Masmoudi N et al (2019) Int J Adv Manuf Technol.
  45. 45.
    Krebelj K, Halilovič M, Mole N (2019) The cooling rate dependence of the specific volume in amorphous plastic injection molding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103(1–4):1175–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Alvarado-Iniesta A, Cuate O, Schütze O (2019) Multi-objective and many objective design of plastic injection molding process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 102(9–12):3165–3180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Han SR, Cho JR, Beak SK, Hong JA, Lee YS (2017) Numerical and experimental studies of injection compression molding process for thick plastic gas valve stem. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–4):651–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang Y, Mao T, Huang Z, Gao H, Li D (2016) A statistical quality monitoring method for plastic injection molding using machine built-in sensors. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(9–12):2483–2494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fuentes-Huerta MA, González-González DS, Cantú-Sifuentes M, Praga-Alejo RJ (2018) RCM implementation on plastic injection molding machine considering correlated failure modes and small size sample. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(9–12):3465–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMing Chi University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Research Center for Intelligent Medical DevicesMing Chi University of TechnologyNew Taipei CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations