Characterization of grain geometrical features for monolayer brazed grinding wheels based on grain cross-sections

  • Junying Chen
  • Changcai CuiEmail author
  • Guoqin Huang
  • Hui Huang
  • Xipeng Xu


The grain geometrical features of grinding wheels are critically important to evaluate their quality and grinding performance. Therefore, grain geometrical features should be comprehensively and systematically characterized. Such characterization parameters were defined from the geometric features of individual grains (for each grain) to the distribution features of grains (for a group of grains on a given wheel surface) on the basis of grain cross-sections. For each grain, characterization parameters included cross-section area, equivalent diameter, volume, and sharpness ratio of the grain. For a group of grains, the characterization parameters were distribution density, cross-section area, cross-section area-supporting rate, and volume proportion of the grains on a sectioning depth. The cross-sections of grains were extracted from the section-scanning images captured by an optical measurement system. A system based on optical vertical scanning using a narrow depth of field microscope was adopted to obtain the optical sectioning images, and the grain cross-section boundaries on each image were extracted through an image-processing program. The defined characterization parameters, vertical sectioning step, and sectioning numbers were calculated efficiently. A monolayer brazed grinding wheel with a grain size of 425–500 μm was selected for an experiment. The individual and group parameters, such as sharpness or strength, active volume, or area-supporting ratio, of grains were used for performance analysis. Experimental results indicated that the proposed parameters based on grain cross-sections are not only efficient to calculate but also effective to characterize the geometric features of grains for monolayer brazed grinding wheels.


Characterization Grain geometric features Grain distribution Monolayer brazed grinding wheel Cross-section Optical system Narrow depth of field 



The authors would like to thank ShineWrite ( for the English language editing.

Funding information

This research is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1805251, 51235004), and Xiamen Science and Technology Project (Grant No. 3502Z20183019).


  1. 1.
    Aurich JC, Herzenstiel P, Sudermann H, Magg T (2008) High-performance dry grinding using a grinding wheel with a defined grain pattern. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 57(1):357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nguyen AT, Butler DL (2008) Correlation of grinding wheel topography and grinding performance: a study from a viewpoint of three-dimensional surface characterisation. J Mater Process Technol 208(1-3):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Butler DL, Blunt LA, See BK, Webster JA, Stout KJ (2002) The characterisation of grinding wheels using 3D surface measurement techniques. J Mater Process Technol 127(2):234–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yan L, Rong YM, Jiang F, Zhou ZX (2011) Three-dimension surface characterization of grinding wheel using white light interferometer. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 55(1-4):133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Qiao GH, Dong GJ, Zhou M (2013) Simulation and assessment of diamond mill grinding wheel topography. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(9-12):2085–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yao P, Gong YD, Matsuda T, Zhou TF, Yan JW, Kuriyagawa T (2012) Investigation of wheel wear mechanisms during grinding optical glasses through statistical analysis of wheel topography. Int J Abras Technol 5(1):33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kapłonek W, Nadolny K, Królczyk GM (2016) The use of focus-variation microscopy for the assessment of active surfaces of a new generation of coated abrasive tools. Meas Sci Rev 16(2):42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cai R, Rowe WB (2004) Assessment of vitrified CBN wheels for precision grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44(12-13):1391–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heinzel C, Rickens K (2009) Engineered wheels for grinding of optical glass. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1):315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tahvilian AM, Liu ZH, Champliaud H, Hazel B, Lagacé M (2015) Characterization of grinding wheel grain topography under different robotic grinding conditions using confocal microscope. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(5-8):1159–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xie J, Wei F, Zheng JH, Tamaki J, Kubo A (2011) 3D laser investigation on micron-scale grain protrusion topography of truncated diamond grinding wheel for precision grinding performance. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(5):411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Darafon A, Warkentin A, Bauer R (2013) Characterization of grinding wheel topography using a white chromatic sensor. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 70(Complete):22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Su HH, Dai JB, Ding WF, Zhang K, Xu W (2016) Experimental research on performance of monolayer brazed diamond wheel through a new precise dressing method—plate wheel dressing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(9-12):3249–3259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Pellegrin DV, Stachowiak GW (2004) Evaluating the role of particle distribution and shape in two-body abrasion by statistical simulation. Tribol Int 37(3):255–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu YM, Wei F, Warkentin A, Bauer R, Gong YD (2013) Investigation of different grain shapes and dressing to predict surface roughness in grinding using kinematic simulations. Precis Eng 37(3):758–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goodman JW (1996) Introduction to Fourier optics. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, pp 126–165Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee I, Mahmood MT, Choi TS (2013) Adaptive window selection for 3D shape recovery from image focus. Opt Laser Technol 45(1):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cormen TH, Leiserson CE, Rivest RL, Stein C (2009) Introduction to algorithms. 3nd edn. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 1030–1034Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Pellegrin DV, Stachowiak GW (2005) Simulation of three-dimensional abrasive particles. Wear 258(1):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ismail MF, Yanagi K, Isobe H (2011) Characterization of geometrical properties of electroplated diamond tools and estimation of its grinding performance. Wear 271(3):559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junying Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Changcai Cui
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Guoqin Huang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hui Huang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xipeng Xu
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Manufacturing EngineeringHuaqiao UniversityXiamenChina
  2. 2.College of Mechanical and Energy EngineeringJimei UniversityXiamenChina
  3. 3.National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Manufacturing Technology of Brittle Material ProductsHuaqiao UniversityXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations