Die structure optimization for eliminating premature folding of sidewall upsetting with a controllable deformation zone

  • Yin Zhu
  • Shengfa Zhu
  • Xincun ZhuangEmail author
  • Zhen Zhao


Upsetting with a controllable deformation zone is a newly developed sheet-bulk forming method to thicken the sidewall of a cup. Compared with conventional upsetting, this new method can eliminate the limitation of the slenderness ratio and improve forming quality. However, the risk of premature folding on the outer surface of the thickened cup cannot be ignored. Thus, this study proposes an enhanced die structure to suppress the risk of premature folding. In order to evaluate premature folding, an estimate index is provided. Design of experiments and analysis of variance are adopted to establish a regression model between process parameters and the estimate index. The response surface and contour plot can then be created on the basis of the regression model. With a carefully determined critical value of the estimate index, an optimized die structure can be obtained, for which the risk of premature folding is experimentally proven to be eliminated.


Upsetting with controllable deformation zone Die structure optimization Premature folding Response surface Estimate index 


Funding information

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 51575345 and 51875351), the National Science & Technology Major Project of China (Grant No.2018ZX04024001-004), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.


  1. 1.
    Kleiner M, Chatti S, Klaus A (2006) Metal forming techniques for lightweight construction. J Mater Process Technol 177(1-3):2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merklein M, Koch J, Schneider T, Opel S, Vierzigmann U (2010) Manufacturing of complex functional components with variants by using a new metal forming process–sheet-bulk metal forming. Int J Mater Form 3(1):347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Merklein M, Allwood JM, Behrens BA, Brosius A, Hagenah H, Kuzman K, Mori K, Tekkaya AE, Weckenmann A (2012) Bulk forming of sheet metal. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 61:725–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Merklein M, Hagenah H (2016) Introduction to sheet-bulk metal forming. Prod Eng 10(1):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mori K (2012) Bulk forming of sheet metals for controlling wall thickness distribution of products. Steel Research International—Special Edition: 14th International Conference Metal Forming, pp. 17–24Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishino S, Ohya K, Yuzawa Y (2010) Plate forging technology by press forming. Journal of Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity 51(594):642–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang XY, Guo ML, Luo JC, Ouyang K, Xia JC (2011) Stamping-forging hybrid forming of double layer cup with different wall thicknesses. Mater Res Innov 15(1):435–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suzumura T, Mine K, Hirayama I, Ishihara S (2002) An experimental study of new redrawing method utilizing axial compressive force and frictional force. Proceedings of the 7th ICTP, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 1093–1098.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang ZG, Hirasawa K, Yoshikawa Y, Osakada K (2016) Forming of light-weight gear wheel by plate forging. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65(1):293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu SF, Zhuang XC, Zhu Y, Zhao Z (2018) Thickening cup sidewall by sheet-bulk forming method with controllable deformation zone. J Mater Process Technol 262:597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gao PF, Fei MY, Yan XG, Zhan M (2019) Prediction of the folding defect in die forging: a versatile approach for three typical types of folding defects. J Manuf Process 39:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xue K, Yang W, Yan S, Li P (2018) Forming defect control and optimization of multi-step spinning thickening process considering the variation of spinning gap. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101(5-8):1183–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng L, Zhao G, Yu J (2015) Effects of ram velocity on pyramid die extrusion of hollow aluminum profile. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79(9-12):2117–2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jin Q, Han X, Hua L, Zhuang W, Feng W (2018) Process optimization method for cold orbital forging of component with deep and narrow groove. J Manuf Process 33:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sarraji WKH, Hussain J, Ren W-X (2012) Experimental investigations on forming time in negative incremental sheet metal forming process. Mater Manuf Process 27(5):499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Azaouzi M, Lebaal N (2012) Tool path optimization for single point incremental sheet forming using response surface method. Simul Model Pract Th 24:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Y, Tang B, Hua L, Mao H (2018) Investigation of a novel modified die design for fine-blanking process to reduce the die-roll size. J Mater Process Technol 260:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vierzigmann HU, Merklein M, Engel U (2011) Friction conditions in sheet-bulk metal forming. Proc Eng 19:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Forming Technology & Equipment, School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Research Center of Die & Mold CADShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations