Processing parameter and transient effects on melt pool geometry in additive manufacturing of Invar 36

  • Chigozie Obidigbo
  • Eric-Paul Tatman
  • Joy GockelEmail author


The use of additive manufacturing (AM) in tooling enables low production components to be fabricated with lower costs, reduced waste, increased design flexibility, and reduced lead time. Invar 36 is a popular metal tooling material known for its low coefficient of thermal expansion. This work uses thermal finite element modeling as a tool to determine the feasibility of using the Invar 36 in the AM and to investigate the transient effect from a common stripe scanning strategy used in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) AM. Modeling results show that the steady-state melt pool dimensions behave similarly to traditional AM materials with the same base materials when varying process parameters within the range of LPBF. Single bead and multiple laser pass experiments were performed to compare to the modeling results and determine additional transient effects resulting from repeated scans. Results show that the Invar 36 is a suitable material for use in the AM, which will enable rapid tooling for composite structures.


Additive manufacturing Modeling Melt pool size Invar Steady state Transient 



The authors would like to acknowledge Jared Speltz from the University of Dayton Research Institute, for assistance in completing the experiments and Luke Sheridan from Wright State University for capturing the melt pool images.


This paper was prepared with financial support from the State of Ohio through the Ohio Federal Research Network.

Compliance with ethical standards


The content reflects the views of the author and does not purport to reflect the views of Wright State University, Wright State Applied Research Corporation or the State of Ohio.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical and Materials EngineeringWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

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