Tribological properties under the grinding wheel and workpiece interface by using graphene nanofluid lubricant

  • Xin Cui
  • Changhe LiEmail author
  • Yanbin Zhang
  • Dongzhou Jia
  • Yongjun Zhao
  • Runze Li
  • Huajun CaoEmail author


In nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (NMQL) grinding of titanium (Ti) alloy, existing nanoparticles cannot solve the technical bottleneck of high surface integrity. Therefore, graphene (GR) nanoparticles, which have excellent lubrication performance, were applied in NMQL. The tribological properties of GR nanofluid on wheel–workpiece interface were studied by friction and wear test. In the experiment, 0.5–3 nm thick GR nanoparticles were used to prepare 3% vol. palm oil-based nanofluid. Ball-disc experiment under grinding conditions was carried out on the friction and wear tester. Grinding balls with SiC abrasive grains (to simulate the grinding wheel) and Ti-6Al-4V disc (to simulate the workpiece) were used. Load force was set for simulation of pressure boundary condition of the grinding wheel–workpiece interface. Stratiform nanoparticles (MoS2, MoO3, and HBN) were used as the comparison group. Results demonstrated that GR nanofluid achieved smaller friction coefficient (0.295), error bars (0.0029), and area of scratches (182,940 μm2). GR nanoparticles with small gravity and large specific surface area improved the viscosity of nanofluid and consequently the lubrication performance. The plane hexagonal honeycomb structure determines the strong lubrication stability and abrasive resistance of the GR nanoparticles. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) images of the scratch surface also verified the above conclusions.


Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (NMQL) Graphene nanofluid Stratiform nanoparticles Frictional test Tribological properties 

Nomenclature and abbreviation


Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication




Hexagonal boron nitride


Scanning electron microscope


Energy dispersive spectrometer


Carbon nanotube


Alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether-10


Force ratio


Friction coefficient


Normal force


Specific normal force


Tangential force


Force of material removal


Force of material deformation


Critical time


Load force


Matrix of protrusion height of grains


Matrix of grain size


Matrix of axial position of generated grains


Distance between two abrasive grains

agmax( n)

Maximum undeformed chip thickness

λ( n~ n−1)

Distance between the dynamic effective abrasive grain n and n − 1

ap( n)

Extruding height of the dynamic effective abrasive grain n

ap( n−1)

Extruding height the dynamic effective abrasive grain n − 1


Peripheral speed of grinding wheel


Feed speed


Average normal action force of single abrasive grain


Grinding width


Funding information

This research was financially supported by the following foundations: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51575290), the Major Research Project of Shandong Province (2017GGX30135 and 2018GGX103044), and the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (ZR2019PEE008).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringQingdao University of TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringInner Mongolia University for NationalitiesTongliaoChina
  3. 3.MH Robot & Automation Co., LTD.WeifangChina
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical TransmissionChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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