Advertisement

Mechanical behavior and microstructure of a fiber laser–welded TWIP steel

  • V. Braga
  • R. H. M. Siqueira
  • S. M. Carvalho
  • R. A. F. Mansur
  • D. Chen
  • M. S. F. LimaEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

TWIP (twinning-induced plasticity) steels emerge as promising materials for the automotive industry, non-magnetic applications, and oil-and-gas exploration. The aims of this paper is to study fiber laser welding of TWIP steel thin sheets from mechanical behavior and microstructural points of view. The samples were laser-welded with speeds of 50, 100, and 150 mm/s keeping the power constant at 1200 W. These three conditions resulted in weld bead 0.2 to 0.4 mm wide without cracks or pores. According to the analyses, the austenite (FCC) dendritic growth occurred from the fusion line to the center of the weld where an equiaxed grain region is observed. The fine equiaxed grains gave rise to a hardness peak compared to surrounding regions of the fusion and heat-affected zones in accordance with the Hall-Petch effect. The heat-affected zone presented a drop in hardness due to the annealing of the cold rolled base material. The tensile shear strength of the laser-welded coupons ranged between 6300 and 10,500 N, which is above the standard limit of 4.5 kN established for electric resistance spot welds. The formability analysis, using Erichsen tests, has shown high ductility with the Erichsen Index of approximately 10 for 0.7 tons-force load.

Keywords

Laser beam welding TWIP steels Mechanical behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the grants 2017/07607-9, 2017/26428-8, and 2016/16683-8 from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). One of the authors (Mansur) thanks the Emerging Leaders in the Americas Program (Canadá) for the support in experimental work and CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel, Brazil) for a PhD Scholarship.

References

  1. 1.
    Bai Y, Momotani Y, Chen MC, Shibata A, Tsuji N (2016) Effect of grain refinement on hydrogen embrittlement behaviors of high-Mn TWIP steel. Mater Sci Eng A 651:935–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wei Y, Li Y, Zhu L, Liu Y, Lei X, Wang G, Gao H (2014) Evading the strenght-ductiity trade-off dilemma in steel through gradient hierarchical nanotwins. Nat Commun 5:1–8Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hwang JK, Yi IC, Son IH, Yoo JY, Kim B, Zargaran A, Kim NJ (2015) Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing. Mater Sci Eng A 644:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cooman, B. C. De, Estrin, Y., & Kim, S. K. (2018) Twinning-induced plasticity ( TWIP ) steels. Acta Materialia, 1-80Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keeler S, Kimchi M, Kuziak R, Kawalla R, Waengler S, Yuqing W, Han Dong YG (2014) Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry. Arch Civ Mech Eng 8(2):511Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen S, Rana R, Haldar A, Ray RK (2017) Current state of Fe-Mn-Al-C low density steels. Prog Mater Sci 89:345–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Limmer KR, Medvedeva JE, Van Aken DC, Medvedeva NI (2015) Ab initio simulation of alloying effect on stacking fault energy in fcc Fe. Comput Mater Sci 99:253–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gebhardt T, Music D, Ekholm M, Abrikosov IA, Vitos L, Dick A, Schneider JM (2011) The influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe – Mn. J. Physics: Cond. Matter.:23Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouaziz O, Allain S, Scott CP, Cugy P, Barbier D (2011) High manganese austenitic twinning induced plasticity steels: a review of the microstructure properties relationships. Curr Opinion Solid State Mater Sci 15(4):141–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    García-García V, Mejía I, Reyes-Calderón F (2018) Comparative study on weldability of Ti-containing TWIP and AISI 304L austenitic steels through the autogenous-GTAW process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98:2365–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang T, Zhang M, Xiong W, Liu R, Shi W, Li L (2015) Microstructure and tensile properties of the laser-welded TWIP steel and the deformation behavior of the fusion zone. Mater Des 83:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lun N, Saha DC, Macwan A, Pan H, Wang L, Goodwin F, Zhou Y (2017) Microstructure and mechanical properties of fibre laser welded medium manganese TRIP steel. Mater Des 131:450–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO, Metallic materials — sheet and strip — Erichsen cupping test, ISO 20482:2003(E), International Organization for Standardization, 2003, 12pGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Cooman BC, Estrin Y, Kim SK (2018) Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. Acta Mater 142:283–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hansen N (2004) Hall–Petch relation and boundary strengthening. Scr Mater 51:801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martı́nez-de-Guerenu A, Arizti F, Dı́az-Fuentes M, Gutiérrez I (2004) Recovery during annealing in a cold rolled low carbon steel. Part I: kinetics and microstructural characterization, Acta Materialia 52, 3657–3664Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Razmpoosh MH, Shamanian M, Esmailzadeh M (2015) The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of resistance spot welded Fe–31Mn–3Al–3Si TWIP steel. Mater Des 67:571–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    AWS (2013) D8.1M:2013 Specification for automotive weld quality resistance spot welding of steel. Avaliable in https://pubs.aws.org/p/1225/d81m2013-specification-for-automotive-weld-quality-resistance-spot-welding-of-steel?_ga=2.259325196.789158294.1554129913-673254140.1554129913. Accessed April 1st, 2019
  19. 19.
    Chao YJ (2003) Ultimate strength and failure mechanism of resistance spot weld subjected to tensile, shear, or combined tensile/shear loads. J Eng Mater Technol 125:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russo Spena P, Cortese L, Nalli F, Májlinger K (2019) Local formability and strength of TWIP-TRIP weldments for stamping tailor welded blanks (TWBs). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:757–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Talapatra A, Choudhary VR, Malhotra K, Vyas M, Jamal A, Singhi MK (2013) Formability characteristics of different sheet metals by erichsen cupping testing with ndt method. J Mat Sci 1:14–18Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamada AS et al. (2017) Ductility and formability of three high-Mn TWIP steels in quasi-static and high-speed tensile and Erichsen tests. Materials Science & Engineering A, 255-265Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Braga
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. H. M. Siqueira
    • 2
  • S. M. Carvalho
    • 2
  • R. A. F. Mansur
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. Chen
    • 3
  • M. S. F. Lima
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Aeronautical Institute of TechnologySao Jose dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Institute for Advanced StudiesSao Jose dos CamposBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations