Process investigation and mechanical properties of electro sinter forged (ESF) titanium discs

  • Emanuele Cannella
  • Chris Valentin NielsenEmail author
  • Niels Bay


Classified as an electric current–assisted sintering (ECAS) process, electro sinter forging (ESF) represents a sintering process following the resistance heating approach. The powder is simultaneously compacted and heated in a closed-die setup. The heating is generated by the Joule effect from the electrical current. Near net shape components of conductive materials are made in the closed-die setup within a short process time (100–400 ms). The final relative density is an important quality measure for the sintered parts. In the present work, samples of commercially pure titanium are produced with up to 98% relative density by optimisation of the main process parameters, namely electrical current density, compaction pressure and sintering time. Metallographic observations revealed that porosities were mostly found at the perimeter of the sintered samples. Mechanical testing by μ-Vickers hardness test, uniaxial compression and indirect tensile tests showed improved properties of the material with increasing density. The achieved mechanical properties were compatible with the theoretical values for bulk titanium.


Electro sinter forging Resistance sintering Metal powder Titanium Metallography Mechanical tests 



American Society for Testing and Materials International


Body-centred cubic


Backscattered detector


Electric current–assisted sintering


Electro sinter forging


Field-assisted sintering technology


Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement


Hexagonal close-packed


Hot pressing


Hardness Vickers


Indirect tensile test


International Organization for Standardization


Light optical microscopy


Middle-frequency direct current


Scanning electron microscope


Spark plasma sintering



This research work was undertaken in the context of MICROMAN project (“Process Fingerprint for Zerodefect Net-shape MICROMANufacturing”, MICROMAN is a European Training Network supported by Horizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (Project ID: 674801).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.IPUKgs. LyngbyDenmark

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