A study of wear on focusing tubes exposed to corundum-based abrasives in the waterjet cutting process

  • Andrzej PerecEmail author
  • Frank Pude
  • Anton Grigoryev
  • Michael Kaufeld
  • Konrad Wegener


Corundum-based abrasives are commonly used for cutting extremely hard materials like e.g. ceramics by means of abrasive waterjets. Due to a reduced lifetime of the used focusing tubes, this type of abrasive is only applied under special consideration of economic circumstances. The cutting centres which use this technology retain only a small amount of used abrasives because of the limited application of this grain type. Nevertheless, observing the disintegration of particles which have interacted with mostly advanced materials is of scientific interest. Garnet-based abrasives are commonly classified in different grain size classes after sieving to evaluate their recycling potential. Based on a feasibility study, this paper will present some results on achieved cutting data and also shows the geometrical change of the used focusing tubes which was realized by non-destructive examination. The mass loss factor of the used focusing tubes was calculated for different corundum materials and compared with the commonly used in AWJ machining abrasive, garnet. Additionally, cutting and recycling properties of the tested corundum-based abrasive was tested. The disintegration properties of the corundum-based abrasive were monitored by sieving and optical test methods. Particle identification after cutting process (grain or chip) was realized by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Finally, the results obtained were used to make a rough calculation for lifetime estimations of the focusing tubes related to the observed wear process.


Abrasive Waterjet Corundum Grain size Disintegration 



  1. 1.
    Barlić J, Nedić B, Marušić V (2008) Focusing tube wear and quality of the machined surface of the abrasive water jet machining. Tribol Ind 30:55–58Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carach J, Lehocka D, Legutko S, Hloch S, Chattopadhyaya S, Dixit AR (2018) Surface roughness of graphite and aluminium alloy after hydro-abrasive machining. In: Hamrol A, Ciszak O, Legutko S, Jurczyk M (eds) Advances in manufacturing (manufacturing 2017). Springer International Publishing Ag, Cham, pp 805–813Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen X, Guan J, Deng S, Liu Q, Chen M (2018) Features and mechanism of abrasive water jet cutting of Q345 steel. Int J Heat Technol 36:81–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Corundum. The mineral corundum, sapphire, ruby info & pictures. Accessed 21 Jul 2018
  5. 5.
    Galecki G, Mazurkiewicz M (1987) Hydro-abrasive cutting head—energy transfer efficiency. In: Proceeding of the Fourth U.S. Water Jet Conference. pp 172–177Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hreha P, Radvanska A, Knapcikova L, Krolczyk GM, Legutko S, Krolczyk JB, Hloch S, Monka P (2015) Roughness parameters calculation by means of on-line vibration monitoring emerging from Awj interaction with material. Metrol Meas Syst 22:315–326. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kacalak W, Lipiński D, Bałasz B, Rypina Ł, Tandecka K, Szafraniec F (2018) Performance evaluation of the grinding wheel with aggregates of grains in grinding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:301–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kukielka L (2010) New damping models of metallic materials and its application in non-linear dynamical cold processes of metal forming. Steel Res Int 81:1482–1485Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kukiełka K (2016) Ecological aspects of the implementation of new technologies processing for machinery parts. Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska Annu Set Environ Prot 18:137–157Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kukielka K, Kukielka L (2006) Modeling and numerical analysis of the thread rolling process. Pamm 6:133–134. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kündig R, Bühler C, Surbeck H Aluminium oxide (corundum, emery, sapphire/ruby). ETHZ, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leonarcik R, Urbaniak M, Debkowski R (2018) Method for assessing the grinding wheels operational properties. Eksploat Niezawodn 20:531–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lipinski D, Kacalak W (2016) Metrological aspects of abrasive tool active surface topography evaluation. Metrol Meas Syst 23:567–577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin GR, Lauand CT, Hennies WT, Ciccu R (2000) Abrasives in water jet cutting systems. Balkema Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Martinec P, Foldyna J, Sitek L, Ščučka J, Vašek J (2002) Abrasives for AWJ cutting. INCO-COPERNICUS No. Institute of Geonics, Ostrava, 2002, ISBN 80-86407-02-0Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nadolny K (2014) State of the art in production, properties and applications of the microcrystalline sintered corundum abrasive grains. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 74:1445–1457. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nadolny K, Sutowski P, Herman D (2015) Analysis of aluminum oxynitride AlON (Abral®) abrasive grains during the brittle fracture process using stress-wave emission techniques. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81:1961–1976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nag A, Scucka J, Hlavacek P, Klichova D, Srivastava AK, Hloch S, Dixit AR, Foldyna J, Zelenak M (2018) Hybrid aluminium matrix composite AWJ turning using olivine and Barton garnet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:2293–2300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Panasil initial contact Light (1:1) - Kettenbach GmbH & Co. KG. Accessed 21 Jul 2018
  20. 20.
    Patyk R, Kukielka L, Kaldunski P, Bohdal L, Chodor J, Kulakowska A, Kukielka K, Nagnajewicz S (2018) Experimental and numerical researches of duplex burnishing process in aspect of achieved productive quality of the product. AIP Conf Proc 1960:070021. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perec A (2012) Comparison of abrasive grain disintegration during the formation abrasive water jet and abrasive slurry injection jet. In: BHR Group - 21st International Conference on Water Jetting: Looking to the Future, Learning from the Past. pp 319–327Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perec A (2016) Abrasive suspension water jet cutting optimization using orthogonal array design. Procedia Eng 149:366–373.
  23. 23.
    Perec A (2018) Experimental research into alternative abrasive material for the abrasive water jet cutting of titanium. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97:1529–1540. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perec A (2018) Environmental aspects of abrasive water jet cutting. Annu Set Environ Prot Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska 20:258–274Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Perec A, Pude F, Stirnimann J, Wegener K (2015) Feasibility study on the use of fractal analysis for evaluating the surface quality generated by waterjet. Tehnički vjesnik 22:879–883.
  26. 26.
    Perec A, Pude F, Kaufeld M, Wegener K (2017) Obtaining the selected surface roughness by means of mathematical model based parameter optimization in abrasive waterjet cutting. Strojniški vestnik J Mech Eng 63:606–613. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spadło S, Krajcarz D (2018) Study of the geometrical structure of copper surface after abrasive waterjet cutting. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 461:012045. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sutowski P, Sutowska M, Kaplonek W (2018) The use of high-frequency acoustic emission analysis for in-process assessment of the surface quality of aluminium alloy 5251 in abrasive waterjet machining. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 232:2547–2565. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tavodová M (2013) The surface quality of materials after cutting by abrasive water jet evaluated by selected methods. Manuf Technol 13:236–241Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    The free dictionary Corundum, artificial. In: Encyclopedia2. Accessed 1 Jul 2018
  31. 31.
    Valicek J, Drzik M, Hloch S, Ohlidal M, Miloslav L, Gombar M, Radvanska A, Hlavacek P, Palenikova K (2007) Experimental analysis of irregularities of metallic surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47:1786–1790. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wessels V, Grigoryev A, Dold C, Wyen C-F, Roth R, Weingaertner E, Pude F, Wegener K, Loeffler JF (2012) Abrasive waterjet machining of three-dimensional structures from bulk metallic glasses and comparison with other techniques. J Mater Res 27:1187–1192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wojcik R, Nadolny K (2017) Effects of a variety of cutting fluids administered using the minimum quantity lubrication method on the surface grinding process for nickel-based alloys. J Zhejiang Univ-SCI A 18:728–740. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inspire AGETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of TechnologyJacob of Paradies UniversityGorzow Wlkp.Poland
  3. 3.Steinbeis Consulting Center High-Pressure Waterjet TechnologyHorgauGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Production Engineering and Materials TestingUniversity of Applied Sciences UlmUlmGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing (IWF)Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH)ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations