Advertisement

Material characterization, constitutive modelling, and processing map for superplastic deformation region in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

  • M. A. WahedEmail author
  • A. K. Gupta
  • V. Sharma
  • K. Mahesh
  • S. K. Singh
  • N. Kotkunde
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 160 Downloads

Abstract

Superplastic deformation behavior plays a significant role in the manufacturing of light and complex shaped components, and particularly, the superplastic behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has different fields of applications such as hollow fan blades used in a gas turbine engine and high-performance heat exchangers. To study this, uniaxial tensile tests have been conducted within a temperature range of 700 to 900 °C at different strain rates, 0.01/s, 0.001/s, and 0.0001/s. The test results show more than 50% elongation in general and more than 200% elongation from 750 to 900 °C at 0.0001/s strain rate, representing the superplastic deformation behavior in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The fractured specimens have been characterized by means of an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Microstructure analysis confirms coarsening of grain size and variation in volume fraction of β with temperature, while SEM study clearly indicates ductile fracture with improved amount of dimples and flow lines at elevated temperatures. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the basic peaks position remains the same, but parameters vary due to superplastic deformation behavior. To accurately estimate the flow stress behavior, modified Arrhenius model has been developed and found to have the correlation coefficient (R) as 0.9939 when compared with experimental flow stress. Furthermore, by using the flow stress data, processing maps have been developed for analyzing the superplastic deformation behavior based on the efficiency and flow instability region at different elevated temperatures and strain rates. Processing maps clearly show excellent efficiency of power dissipation without any presence of flow instability in the superplastic deformation domain, i.e., from 770 to 900 °C temperature range and at 0.01–0.0001/s strain rate.

Keywords

Ti-6Al-4V alloy Superplastic deformation Material properties Material characterization Constitutive modelling Processing map 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank Dr. A K Singh, Scientist-G, DMRL Hyderabad, for useful discussions on the comments by the reviewers.

Funding

This research work is financially supported by the Aeronautics R&D Board, Government of India, ARDB, project no. 3654.

References

  1. 1.
    Leyens C, Peters M (2003) Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & CoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Giuliano G (2011) Superplastic forming of advanced metallic materials methods and applications. Wood head Publishing LimitedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alabort E, Putman D, Reed RC (2015) Super plasticity in Ti-6Al-4V: characterisation, modelling and applications. Acta Mater 95:428–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Salishchev GA, Galeyev RM, Valiakhmetov OR, Safiullin RV, Lutfullin RY, Senkov ON, Froes FH, Kaibyshev OA (2001) Development of Ti-6Al-4V sheet with low temperature superplastic properties. J Mater Process Technol 116:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Patankar SN, Escobedo JP, Field DP, Salishchev G, Galeyev RM, Valiakhmetov OR, Froes FH (2002) Superior superplastic behaviour in fine-grained Ti-6Al-4V sheet. J Alloys Compd 345:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jalumedi B, Dutta A (2015) Low temperature superplasticity through grain refinement in Ti-6Al-4V by a novel route of quench-roll-recrystallise. J Mater Res Technol 4(3):348–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim JS, Kim JH, Lee YT, Park CG, Lee CS (1999) Microstructural analysis on boundary sliding and its accommodation mode during superplastic deformation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 263:272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vanderhasten M, Rabet L, Verlinden B (2007) Deformation mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V during tensile behaviour at low strain rate. J Mater Eng Perform 16:208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu J, Tan MJ, Yingyot A-U-L, Guo M, Castagne S, Chua BW (2013) Superplastic-like forming of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin YC, Chen X-M (2011) A critical review of experimental results and constitutive descriptions for metals and alloys in hot working. Mater Des 32:1733–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Picu RC, Majorell A (2002) Mechanical behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V at high and moderate temperatures - part II: constitutive modelling. Mater Sci Eng A 326:306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang Y, Ji J, Lee K-M (2018) An improved material constitutive model considering temperature-dependent dynamic recrystallization for numerical analysis of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(9–12):3655–3670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khan AS, Yu S (2012) Deformation induced anisotropic responses of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Part I: experiments. Int J Plast 38:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kotkunde N, Deole AD, Gupta AK, Singh SK (2014) Comparative study of constitutive modelling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy at low strain rates and elevated temperatures. Mater Des 55:999–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kotkunde N, Krishnamurthy NH, Puranik P, Gupta AK, Singh SK (2014) Microstructure study and constitutive modelling of Ti–6Al–4V alloy at elevated temperatures. Mater Des 54:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tuninetti V, Habraken AM (2014) Impact of anisotropy and viscosity to model the mechanical behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 605:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xiao J, Li DS, Li XQ, Deng TS (2012) Constitutive modelling and microstructure change of Ti-6Al-4V during the hot tensile deformation. J Alloys Compd 541:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Porntadawit J, Uthaisangsuk V, Choungthong P (2014) Modelling of flow behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V alloy at elevated temperatures. Mater Sci Eng A 599:212–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prasad Y, Rao K, Sasidhara S (2015) Hot working guide: a compendium of processing maps. ASM internationalGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prasad Y, Seshacharyulu T (1998) Processing maps for hot working of titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 243:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seshacharyulu T, Medeiros SC, Frazier WG, Prasad Y (2000) Hot working of commercial Ti–6Al–4V with an equiaxed α–β microstructure: materials modelling considerations. Mater Sci Eng A 284:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Seshacharyulu T, Medeiros SC, Frazier WG, Prasad Y (2002) Microstructural mechanisms during hot working of commercial grade Ti–6Al–4V with lamellar starting structure. Mater Sci Eng A 325:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cai J, Zhang X, Wang K, Wang Q, Wang W (2016) Development and validation of processing maps for Ti-6Al-4V alloy using various flow instability criteria. J Mater Eng Perform 25:4750–4756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lukaszek-Solek A, Krawczyk J (2015) The analysis of the hot deformation behaviour of the Ti–3Al–8V–6Cr–4Zr–4Mo alloy, using processing maps, a map of microstructure and of hardness. Mater Des 65:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang J, Zhao G, Li M (2016) Establishment of processing map and analysis of microstructure on multi-crystalline tungsten plastic deformation process at elevated temperature. Mater Des 103:268–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tuoyang Z, Yong L, Daniel GS, Bin L, Weidong Z, Canxu Z (2014) Development of fine-grain size titanium 6Al-4V alloy sheet material for low temperature superplastic forming. Mater Sci Eng A 608:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tamirisakandala S, Bhat R, Miracle D, Boddapati S, Bordia R, Vanover R, Vasudevan V (2005) Effect of boron on the beta transus of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Scr Mater 53:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roy S, Suwas S (2013) The influence of temperature and strain rate on the deformation response and microstructural evolution during hot compression of a titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V–0.1B. J Alloys Compd 548:110–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roy S, Madhavan R, Suwas S (2014) Crystallographic texture and microstructure evolution during hot compression of Ti–6Al–4V–0.1B alloy in the (α + β)-regime. Philos Mag 94(4):358–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gupta AK, Krishnan AV, Singh SK (2013) Constitutive models to predict flow stress in austenitic stainless steel 316 at elevated temperatures. Mater Des 43:410–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gupta AK, Krishnamurthy NH, Singh Y, Kaushik M, Singh SK (2013) Development of constitutive models for dynamic strain aging regime in austenitic stainless steel 304. Mater Des 45:616–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen G, Chen L, Zhao G, Zhang C, Cui W (2017) Microstructure analysis of an Al-Zn-Mg alloy during porthole die extrusion based on modeling of constitutive equation and dynamic recrystallization. J Alloys Compd 710:80–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen L, Zhao G, Yu J (2015) Hot deformation behavior and constitutive modeling of homogenized 6026 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 74:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen L, Zhao G, Yu J, Zhang W (2015) Constitutive analysis of homogenized 7005 aluminum alloy at evaluated temperature for extrusion process. Mater Des 66:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sellars C, McTegart W (1966) On the mechanism of hot deformation. Acta Metall 14:1136–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zener HC, Hollomon J (1944) Effect of strain rate upon plastic flow of steel. J Appl Phys 15:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xiao Y-H, Guo C (2011) Constitutive modelling for high temperature behaviour of 1Cr12Ni3Mo2VNbN martensitic steel. Mater Sci Eng A 528:5081–5087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dieter GE (2013) Mechanical Metullargy. McGraw Hill EducationGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang G, Li X, Liu S, Gu Y (2018) Improved superplasticity and microstructural evolution of Ti2AlNb alloy sheet during electrically assisted superplastic gas bulging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 99:773–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sorgente D, Palumbo G, Piccininni A, Guglielmi P, Tricarico L (2017) Modelling the superplastic behaviour of the Ti6Al4V-ELI by means of a numerical/experimental approach. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tang J-S, Fuh Y-K, Lee S (2015) Superplastic forming process applied to aero-industrial strakelet: wrinkling, thickness, and microstructure analysis. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77:1513–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Wahed
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. K. Gupta
    • 1
  • V. Sharma
    • 1
  • K. Mahesh
    • 2
  • S. K. Singh
    • 3
  • N. Kotkunde
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBITS-Pilani, Hyderabad CampusHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringRGUKT BasarNirmalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringGRIETHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations