In this paper, a novel tool wear mechanism in low-frequency vibration–assisted drilling (LFVAD) of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic (CFRP)/Ti stacks and its individual layer has been proposed. Firstly, the difference of the effective rake angle, effective clearance angle, undeformed chip thickness, and tool-workpiece contact length between low-frequency vibration–assisted drilling and conventional drilling (CD) was analyzed based on the kinematic model. Then, the strength at different positions of the cutting edge was evaluated. Furthermore, the drilling experiments of CFRP/Ti stacks, CFRP plate, and Ti plate individually were taken under LFVAD and CD processes. Finally, the tool wear mechanism and the benefit of CFRP/Ti stacks and CFRP plate processed by LFVAD were expounded by kinematic analysis results, the analysis of drilling force, SEM images, and the profile of the cutting edge. The results show that the inner edge close to the chisel edge could be the weakest position of the drill in LFVAD. As the mean drilling force of LFVAD is lower than CD, the total wear volume of LFVAD is smaller than CD. Due to the change in the resultant cutting speed angle and the undeformed chip thickness, LFVAD produces the longer tool-workpiece contact length on the rake face and the flank face, which directly leads to a more uniform tool wear and a self-sharpening effect on the cutting edge. Thus, the reduction in the effective rake of the drill used in LFVAD is obviously smaller than the reduction in conventional drilling. The reduction in the effective clearance angle of the drill used in the LFVAD is also less than the reduction in conventional drilling, while this difference is attenuated as the cutting radius increases. The edge radius of the cutting edge is found to be much smaller than CD. In summary, the difference in the cutting edge geometry between LFVAD and CD is the root cause of the tool used in LFVAD to avoid severe edge chipping.
Low-frequency vibration–assisted drilling Tool wear CFRP Ti Stacks
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [No. 51875284], Graduate Student Scientific Research Innovation Projects of Jiangsu Province, China [KYLX16_0318], and Fund of National Engineering and Research Center for Commercial Aircraft Manufacturing of China [COMAC-SFGS-201836732].
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