Advertisement

Finite element analysis of the effect of tool rake angle on brittle-to-ductile transition in diamond cutting of silicon

  • Junjie ZhangEmail author
  • La Han
  • Jianguo ZhangEmail author
  • Guo Li
  • Jianfeng Xu
  • Yongda Yan
  • Tao Sun
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Brittle-to-ductile transition plays a crucial role in ultra-precision machining of hard-brittle materials. In the present work, we investigate the brittle-to-ductile transition in diamond grooving of monocrystalline silicon by finite element modeling and simulation based on Drucker-Prager constitutive model. The brittle-to-ductile transition behavior is distinguished by analyzing evolutions of chip profile and cutting force. Corresponding diamond grooving experiment using the same machining configuration with the finite element simulation is also carried out to derive the critical depth of cut for the brittle-to-ductile transition. The comparison of experimental value of the critical depth of cut and predicted one by the finite element simulation demonstrates the high accuracy of as-established finite element model. Subsequent finite element simulations are performed to investigate the influence of rake angle of cutting tool on both diamond grooving and conventional diamond cutting with a constant depth of cut, which demonstrates a prominent dependence of brittle-to-ductile transition of silicon on the rake angle ranging from − 60° to 0°. And a critical rake angle for the most pronounced ductile machinability of silicon is found.

Keywords

: Diamond cutting Silicon Brittle-to-ductile transition Rake angle Finite element simulation 

Notes

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)-German Research Foundation (DFG) international joint research program (51761135106), the Science Challenge Project (Nos. TZ2018006-0201-02 and TZ2018006-0205-02), the Foundation of Laboratory of Ultra Precision Manufacturing Technology, CAEP (ZD 18007), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and Open Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China (DMETKF2018007 and DMETKF2019016).

References

  1. 1.
    Rajendra S (2009) Why silicon is and will remain the dominant photovoltaic material. J Nanophotonics 3:032503MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saoubi RM, Outeiro JC, Chandrasekaran H, Dillon OW, Jawahir IS (2008) A review of surface integrity in machining and its impact on functional performance and life of machined products. Int J Sustain Manuf 1:203–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chon KS, Namba Y (2010) Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror. J Mech Sci Technol 24:1603–1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Higginbottom DB, Campbell GT, Araneda G, Fang FZ, Colombe Y, Buchler BC, Lam PK (2018) Fabrication of precision hemispherical mirrors for quantum optics applications. Sci Rep 8:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilman JJ (1993) Why silicon is hard. Science 261:1436–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arif M, Rahman M, San WY (2012) A state-of-the-art review of ductile cutting of silicon wafers for semiconductor and microelectronics industries. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:481–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen YL, Cai Y, Shimizu Y, Ito S, Gao W, Ju BF (2016) Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool. J Micromech Microeng 26:025002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu K, Zuo D, Li XP, Rahman M (2009) Nanometric ductile cutting characteristics of silicon wafer using single crystal diamond tools. J Vac Sci Technol B 27:1361–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhou M, Ngoi BKA, Zhong ZW, Chin CS (2001) Brittle-ductile transition in diamond cutting of silicon single crystals. Mater Manuf Process 16:14Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Uddin MS, Seah KHW, Rahman M, Li XP, Liu K (2007) Performance of single crystal diamond tools in ductile mode cutting of silicon. J Mater Process Technol 185:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leung TP, Lee WB, Lu XM (1998) Diamond turning of silicon substrates in ductile-regime. J Mater Process Technol 73:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blake PN, Scattergood RO (1990) Ductile-regime machining of germanium and silicon. J Am Ceram Soc 73:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chao CL, Ma KJ, Liu DS, Bai CY, Shy TL (2002) Ductile behaviour in single-point diamond-turning of single-crystal silicon. J Mater Process Technol 127:87–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yan J, Syoji K, Kuriyagawa T, Suzuki H (2002) Ductile regime turning at large tool feed. J Mater Process Technol 121:63–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shibata T, Fujii S, Makino E, Ikeda M (1996) Ductile-regime turning mechanism of single-crystal silicon. Precis Eng 18:29–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fang FZ, Venkatesh VC (1998) Diamond cutting of silicon with nanometric finish. Cirp Ann Manuf Technol 47:5–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu C, Li B, Yang J, Liang S (2016) Prediction of grinding force for brittle materials considering co-existing of ductility and brittleness. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:1967–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yan JW, Tamaki J, Syoji K (2004) Single-point diamond turning of CaF2 for nanometric surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 24:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Uddin MS, Seah KHW, Rahman M, Li XP, Liu K (2007) Performance of single crystal diamond tools in ductile mode cutting of silicon. J Mater Process Technol 185:4–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Patten JA, Gao W (2001) Extreme negative rake angle technique for single point diamond nano-cutting of silicon. Precis Eng 25:65–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang ZY, Du Y, Wang B, Wang Z, Kang RK, Guo D (2017) Nanoscale wear layers on silicon wafers induced by mechanical chemical grinding. Tribol Lett 65:132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang ZY, Cui JF, Wang B, Wang Z, Kang RK, Guo DM (2017) A novel approach of mechanical chemical grinding. J Alloys Compd 726:14–524Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xiao G, To S, Zhang G (2015) Molecular dynamics modelling of brittle-ductile cutting mode transition: case study on silicon carbide. Int J Mach Tool Manu 88:14–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang JG, Suzuki N, Wang YL, Shamoto E (2014) Fundamental investigation of ultra-precision ductile machining of tungsten carbide by applying elliptical vibration cutting with single crystal diamond. J Mater Process Technol 214:644–2659Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu K, Li XP, Liang SY (2007) The mechanism of ductile chip formation in cutting of brittle materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 33:75–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang TS, Chang SY, Chou JC (2012) Predictions of scratch characters for engineering material by using fem and abductive network. Appl Mech Mater 232:59–664Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang ZY, Guo DM, Wang B, Kang RK, Zhang B (2015) A novel approach of high speed scratching on silicon wafers at nanoscale depths of cut. Sci Report 5:16395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang B, Zhang ZY, Chang KK, Cui JF, Andreas R, Yu JH, Lin CT, Chen GX, Zang KT, Luo J, Guo DM (2018) New deformation-induced nanostructure in silicon. Nano Lett 18:4611–4617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan JW, Zhao HW, Kuriyagawa T (2009) Effects of tool edge radius on ductile machining of silicon: an investigation by fem. Semicond Sci Technol 24:075018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mir A, Luo XC, Cheng K, Cox A (2017) Investigation of influence of tool rake angle in single point diamond turning of silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:2343–2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shi LQ, Li XW, Yu F (2013) Finite element simulation of precision cutting monocrystalline silicon. Adv Mater Res 662:99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu HT, Xie WK, Sun YZ, Zhu XF, Wang MH (2017) Investigations on brittle-ductile cutting transition and crack formation in diamond cutting of mono-crystalline silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:9–10Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang SF, An CH, Zhang FH, Wang J, Lei XY, Zhang JF (2016) An experimental and theoretical investigation on the brittle ductile transition and cutting force anisotropy in cutting KDP crystal. Int J Mach Tool Manu 106:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee SH, Ahn BW (2006) Monitoring of brittle-ductile transition during AFM machining using acoustic emission. Key Eng Mater 326–328:405–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koshimizu S, Otsuka J (2001) Detection of ductile to brittle transition in microindentation and microscratching of single crystal silicon using acoustic emission. Mach Sci Technol 5:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Youn SW, Kang CG (2005) FEA study on nanodeformation behaviors of amorphous silicon and borosilicate considering tip geometry for pit array fabrication. Mater Sci Eng 390:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Blaedel KL, Carr JW, Davis PJ, Goodman WA, Haack JK, Krulewich D (2001) An empirical survey on the influence of machining parameters on tool wear in diamond turning of large single-crystal silicon optics. Precis Eng 25:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fang FZ, Zhang GX (2003) An experimental study of edge radius effect on cutting single crystal silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 22:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhao QL, Chen MJ, Liang YC, Dong S, Deng C (2002) Effects of diamond cutting tool’s rake angle and rounded cutting edge radius on the machined single crystal silicon surface quality. J Mech Eng-en 12:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Durazo-Cardenas I, Shore P, Luo XC, Jacklin T, Impey SA, Cox A (2007) 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon. Wear 262:340–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang MH, Wang W, Lu ZS (2013) Critical cutting thickness in ultra-precision machining of single crystal silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 65:843–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mir A, Luo XC, Siddiq A (2017) Smooth particle hydrodynamics study of surface defect machining for diamond turning of silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88:2461–2476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ando T, Sato K, Shikida M, Yoshioka T, Yoshikawa Y, Kawabata T (1997) Orientation-dependent fracture strain in single-crystal silicon beams under uniaxial tensile conditions. Proc IEEE Int Symp Micromechatronics Hum Sci:55–60Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang JJ, Zhang JG, Wang ZF, Hartmaier A, Yan Y, Sun T (2017) Interaction between phase transformations and dislocations at incipient plasticity of monocrystalline silicon under nanoindentation. Comput Mater Sci 131:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhu B, Zhao D, Zhao HW, Guan J, Hou PL, Wang SB, Qian L (2017) A study on the surface quality and brittle-ductile transition during the elliptical vibration-assisted nanocutting process on monocrystalline silicon via molecular dynamic simulations. RSC Adv 7:4179–4189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ravindra D, Ghantasala MK, Patten J (2012) Ductile mode material removal and high-pressure phase transformation in silicon during micro-laser assisted machining. Precis Eng 36:364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang ZB, Stukowski A, Urbassek HM (2016) Interplay of dislocation-based plasticity and phase transformation during Si nanoindentation. Comput Mater Sci 119:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Callahan DL, Morris JC (1992) The extent of phase transformation in silicon hardness indentations. J Mater Res 7:1614–1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cai MB, Li XP, Rahman M (2007) High-pressure phase transformation as the mechanism of ductile chip formation in nanoscale cutting of silicon wafer. P I Mech Eng B-J Eng 221:1511–1519Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yan J, Asami T, Harada H, Kuriyagawa T (2009) Fundamental investigation of subsurface damage in single crystalline silicon caused by diamond machining. Precis Eng 33:378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhang ZY, Wang B, Kang RK, Zhang B, Guo DM (2015) Changes in surface layer of silicon wafers from diamond scratching. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 64:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Precision EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and EngineeringHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  3. 3.Research Center of Laser FusionChina Academy of Engineering PhysicsMianyangChina

Personalised recommendations