Experimental study on forming limit diagram obtained by bulging uniformly in thickness direction

  • Zhiying SunEmail author
  • Hong Zhuang


Aiming at the problem about misjudging sheet fracture in hydroforming process, the different mechanisms between drawing and hydraulic bulging are analyzed. In this paper, a method to test the forming limit diagram (FLD) based on uniform load in thickness direction is adopted by using laminated plate hydroforming, and the quality of hydroforming process is judged more accurately. By the numerical simulation analysis, the shape of the specimen on five different linear paths is preliminarily determined, and the forming limit diagram of the sheet is obtained under the stretch-compression condition. At the same time, the influence of method of lubrication such as non-lubrication, oil, grease, and thin film on FLD is analyzed. The results show that the first principal strain and the second principal strain increase, and the bulging height decreases with the decrease of friction factor. Among them, the friction factor of thin film is reduced to the lowest. In the process of laminated sheet hydroforming, the thin film lubrication between pieces is more relatively accord with the experimental condition of stretch-compression bulging, and the FLD is more reliable to judge the quality of component formed by hydroforming.


Forming limit diagram (FLD) Hydroforming Linear path Laminated plate Friction factor 


Funding Information

All the experiments were financed and supported by the pre-research project in Zhangjiagang city of China with Grant No. 599918013 and the fund was provided by Jiangsu University of Science and Technology with Grant No. 1022931803.


  1. 1.
    Chiba R (2013) Reliability analysis of forming limits of anisotropic metal sheets with uncertain material properties. Comput Mater Sci 69:113–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hussaini SM, Krishna G, Gupta AK, Singh SK (2015) Development of experimental and theoretical forming limit diagrams for warm forming of austenitic stainless steel 316. J Manuf Process 18:151–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shao Z, Li N, Lin J, Dean TA (2016) Development of a new biaxial testing system for generating forming limit diagrams for sheet metals under hot stamping conditions. Exp Mech 56(9):1489–1500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christopher M, Amir H, Green Daniel E, Jia C, Golovashchenko Sergey F, Gillard Alan J, Yiteng L (2016) Comparison of quasi-static and electrohydraulic free forming limits for DP600 and AA5182 sheets. J Mater Process Technol 235:206–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rui X, Xiao-Xing L, Li-Hui L, Qiu S, Kang-Ning L (2017) Forming limit in thermal cruciform biaxial tensile testing of titanium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 240:354–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhiying S, Lihui L, Kui L, Yao W, Quanda Z (2017) Study on the mechanism and the suppression method of wrinkling in side wall using hydroforming of the fairing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(9-12):2527–2535. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhiying S, Lihui L (2017) Study on hydroforming process and springback control of large sheet with weak rigidity. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 18(6):903–912. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yao W, Lang L, Ehsan S, Brian NK, Li XX, Ying SZ (2018) Rigid-flexible coupling forming process for aluminum alloy automobile body panels. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(9):3905–3918. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gaoshen C, Wu C, Gao Z, Lang L, Sergei A (2018) Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test. AIP Adv. 8(5): 55023-055023-9.doi:
  10. 10.
    Bagherzadeh S, Mollaei-Dariani B, Malekzadeh K (2012) Theoretical study on hydro-mechanical deep drawing process of bimetallic sheets and experimental observations. J Mater Process Technol 212(9):1840–1849. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atrian A, Fereshteh-Saniee F (2013) Deep drawing process of steel/brass laminated sheets. Compos Part B-Eng 47:75–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takuda H, Fujimoto H, Hatta N (1998) Formabilities of steel/aluminium alloy laminated composite sheets. J Mater Sci 33(1):91–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lang L, Danckert J, Nielsen KB (2005) Multi-layer sheet hydroforming: Experimental and numerical investigation into the very thin layer in the middle. J Mater Process Technol 170(3):524–535. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karajibani E, Fazli A, Hashemi R (2015) Numerical and experimental study of formability in deep drawing of two-layer metallic sheets. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(1):113–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xianfeng C, Li S, Zhongqi Y, Zhongqin L (2012) Study on experimental approaches of forming limit curve for tube hydroforming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 61(1):87–100. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deshuai K, Lihui L, Shangwen R, Zhiying S, Chi Z (2017) A novel hydroforming approach in manufacturing thin-walled elbow parts with small bending radius. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5-8):1579–1591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hajializadeh F, Mashhadi MM (2015) Investigation and numerical analysis of impulsive hydroforming of aluminum 6061-T6 tube. J Manuf Process 20(1):257–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alireza JALIL, Mohammad HG, Morad M, SHEIKHI SMHS (2016) Hydrodynamic deep drawing of double layered conical cups. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 2016(01):237–247Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murshid I, Yufeng S, Hidetoshi F, Ninshu MA (2018) Deformation characteristics and microstructural evolution in friction stir welding of thick 5083 aluminum alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 99(1-4):663–681. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringJiangsu University of Science and TechnologyZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations