Influences of postproduction heat treatments on the material anisotropy of nickel-aluminum bronze fabricated using wire-arc additive manufacturing process

  • Chen Shen
  • Gang Mu
  • Xueming HuaEmail author
  • Fang Li
  • Dongzhi Luo
  • Xiangru Ji
  • Chi Zhang


The anisotropy of wire-arc additively deposited nickel-aluminum bronze alloy is studied by microstructure observation and room temperature mechanical property testing. The applied heat treatments have effectively modified the as-fabricated {0 1 1} <2 1 1>, {1 1 1} <1 1 0> texture into {1 1 1}. According to the microstructures, the single tempering has resulted in lowest anisotropy while heat treatment with prior homogenization and quenching process induces even intensified annealing textures. However, as shown by the tensile tests, the quenching process is necessary for favorable mechanical properties in the wire-arc additive manufacturing fabricated nickel-aluminum bronze component; therefore, a balance between homogenization annealing and κ-phase precipitation is indicated. Meanwhile, the function of κ-phase precipitates on grain rotation and growth during post-production heat treatment is explained in detail.


Nickel-aluminum bronze Additive manufacturing Anisotropy Grain orientation Heat treatment 



Gratitude is also due to the Instrumental Analysis Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University for the microstructure tests.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge the support of the National Key Research and Development Program of China [Grant No.: 2016YFB0301205] and “Sailing Program” of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee [Grant No.: 19YF1422700].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gang Mu
    • 1
  • Xueming Hua
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fang Li
    • 1
  • Dongzhi Luo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xiangru Ji
    • 1
  • Chi Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Technical Institute of Ordnance Industry, School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringChongqing Electromechanical Vocational InstitutionChongqingChina

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