Influence of laser processing parameters on porosity in Inconel 718 during additive manufacturing

  • Pankaj KumarEmail author
  • Jano Farah
  • Javed AkramEmail author
  • Chong Teng
  • Jon Ginn
  • Mano Misra


The melt pool characteristics in terms of size and shape and the porosity development in laser powder bed fusion–processed Inconel 718 were investigated to determine how laser power and scan speed influence the porosity in the microstructure. The melt pool characteristics developed with both single-track and multilayer bulk laser deposition were evaluated. It was found that the melt pool characteristic is critical for the porosity development. It is shown that the porosity fraction and pore shape change depending on the melt pool size and shape. This result is explained based on the local energy density of a laser during the process. High-density (> 99%) Inconel 718 samples were achieved over a wide range of laser energy densities (J/mm2). A careful assessment shows that the laser power and scan speed affect differently in developing the pores in the samples. The porosity decreased rapidly with the increase in laser power while it varied linearly with the scan speed. A proper combination, however, led to fully dense samples. The study reveals an optimum condition in terms of laser power and scan speed that can be adopted to fabricate high-density Inconel 718 parts using laser powder bed fusion–based additive manufacturing process.


Additive manufacturing Selective laser melting Inconel 718 Porosity Melt pool characteristics Laser powder bed fusion 


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Funding information

The authors PK, JF, and MM duly acknowledge the partial financial support from the Roger and Dawn Center for Renewable Energy Center at the University of Utah.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA
  2. 2.Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.AnsysPark CityUSA

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