Advertisement

Melting and solidification behavior of Ti-6Al-4V powder during selective laser melting

  • Shunya YamamotoEmail author
  • Hisashi Azuma
  • Shinsuke Suzuki
  • Satoshi Kajino
  • Naoko Sato
  • Toshimitsu Okane
  • Shizuka Nakano
  • Toru Shimizu
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

To investigate melting and solidification behavior during selective laser melting (SLM), the shape of the solidified materials and energy balance during SLM were evaluated through temperature measurements with a two-color pyrometer. The laser power and scanning speed were selected as parameters to melt Ti-6Al-4V powder in a square area. The input energy per unit area used during SLM was 5, 10, 16, or 20 J/mm2. The melting depth and width increased as the input energy increased. However, the aspect ratio of the melted area was constant. The mass ratio of melted to sintered material decreased as input energy increased. It was considered that the surplus input energy was used for sintering when the energy was high. Color maps show that the surface temperature distribution around the laser irradiation area was asymmetric, in which the temperature gradient at the solidified material side was smoother than that at powder side. The temperature history showed that melting and solidification occurred repeatedly during irradiation.

Keywords

Selective laser melting Additive manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Temperature measurement Melting Solidification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Funding information

This research was supported by Japan Science and Technology (JST), under the Industrial-Academia Collaborative R&D Program “Heterogeneous Structure Control: Towards Innovative Development of Metallic Structural Materials.”

References

  1. 1.
    Kruth JP (1991) Material Incress manufacturing by rapid prototyping techniques. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 40(2):603–614Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yan C, Hao L, Hussein A, Raymont D (2012) Evaluations of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 62:32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kasperovich G, Hausmann J (2015) Improvement of fatigue resistance and ductility of TiAl6V4 processed by selective laser melting. J Mater Process Technol 220:202–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Osakada K, Shiomi M (2006) Flexible manufacturing of metallic products by selective laser melting of powder. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46:1188–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Qiu C, Panwisawas C, Ward M, Basoalto HC, Brooks JW, Attallah MM (2015) On the role of melt flow into the surface structure and porosity development during selective laser melting. Acta Mater 96:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xia M, Gu D, Yu G, Dai D, Chen H, Shi Q (2016) Selective laser melting 3D printing of ni-based superalloy: understanding thermodynamic mechanisms. Sci Bull 61(13):1013–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mower TM, Long MJ (2016) Mechanical behavior of additive manufactured, powder-bed laser-fused materials. Mater Sci Eng A 651:198–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furumoto T, Ueda T, Kobayashi N, Yassin A, Hosokawa A, Abe S (2009) Study on laser consolidation of metal powder with Yb: fiber laser-evaluation of line consolidation structure. J Mater Process Technol 209(18–19):5973–5980Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li R, Shi Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Liu J, Jiang W (2010) Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting. Appl Surf Sci 256(13):4350–4356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li R, Liu J, Shi Y, Wang L, Jiang W (2012) Balling behavior of stainless steel and nickel powder during selective laser melting process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 59(9–12):1025–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khairallah SA, Anderson AT, Rubenchik A, King WE (2016) Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones. Acta Mater 108:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang J, Han J, Yu H, Yin J, Gao M, Wang Z, Zeng X (2016) Role of molten pool mode on formability, microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mater Des 110:558–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yadroitsev I, Gusarov A, Yadroitsava I, Smurov I (2010) Single track formation in selective laser melting of metal powders. J Mater Process Technol 210(12):1624–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yadroitsev I, Krakhmalev P, Yadroitsava I (2014) Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution. J Alloys Compd 583:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hussein A, Hao L, Yan C, Everson R (2013) Finite element simulation of the temperature and stress fields in single layers built without-support in selective laser melting. Mater Des 52:638–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yin J, Peng G, Chen C, Yang J, Zhu H, Ke L, Wang Z, Wang D, Ma M, Wang G, Zeng X (2018) Thermal behavior and grain growth orientation during selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J Mater Process Technol 260:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mertens R, Clijsters S, Kempen K, Kruth J-P (2014) Optimization of scan strategies in selective laser melting of aluminum parts with downfacing areas. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans 136(6):061012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matsumoto M, Shiomi M, Osakada K, Abe F (2002) Finite element analysis of single layer forming on metallic powder bed in rapid prototyping by selective laser processing. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 42(1):61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boyer R, Welsch G, Collings EW (eds) (1994) Materials properties handbook: titanium alloys. ASM International, Materials ParkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Debroy T, David SA (1995) Physical processes in fusion welding. Rev Mod Phys 67(1):85–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ikeshouji T, Kyogoku H, Yonehara M, Araki M, Nakamura K (2016) Numerical simulation of transient heat conduction analysis in laser illuminated area during SLM process including melting and solidification of powder layer. Annual Report of Research Institute of Fundamental Technology for Next Generation of Kindai University 7:89–94Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shunya Yamamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hisashi Azuma
    • 1
  • Shinsuke Suzuki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Satoshi Kajino
    • 3
  • Naoko Sato
    • 3
  • Toshimitsu Okane
    • 3
  • Shizuka Nakano
    • 3
  • Toru Shimizu
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of Fundamental Science and EngineeringWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Kagami Memorial Research Institute of Materials Science and TechnologyWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringTokyo Denki UniversitySaitamaJapan

Personalised recommendations