Influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness and strain hardening during milling NiTi shape memory alloy

  • Guijie Wang
  • Zhanqiang LiuEmail author
  • Weimin Huang
  • Bing Wang
  • Jintao Niu


Nitinol is well known as one difficult-to-machine alloy due to its poor machinability, which requires a large amount of cutting force and cutting temperature, resulting in poor surface roughness and strain hardening. The influence of the milling parameters on the surface roughness and strain hardening with orthogonal experiment is studied in this paper. It is found that cutting speed and feed rate have important influence on the surface roughness and strain hardening. When the cutting speed becomes larger, the surface roughness decreases, while the work hardening decreases first and then gets bigger. The surface roughness and work hardening increase gradually when the feed rate increases. However, the width of cut has little effect on the above surface roughness and strain hardening. The research shows that the medium range of cutting speed selection is better for the milling of NiTi shape memory alloy as used as medical implant materials that can achieve the minimal work hardening and smaller surface roughness.


NiTi shape memory alloy Surface roughness Strain hardening Milling Cutting parameters 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China grant numbers 51425503 and 91860207, Taishan Scholar Foundation of Shandong Province grant number TS20130922. The authors would also like to acknowledge the support from Collaborative Innovation Center for Shandong’s Main Crop Production Equipment and Mechanization.


  1. 1.
    Christian S, Daniel J (2018) Development of a shape memory alloy actuator using generative manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97:4157–4166. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sungcheul L, Seung KR, Jong KP (2016) Performance evaluation of a shape memory alloy tool holder for high-speed machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 84:717–725Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pelton AR, Stöckel D, Duerig TW (2000) Medical uses of nitinol. Mater Sci Forum 327-328:63–70Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Humbeeck JV (1999) Non-medical applications of shape memory alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 273-275(1):134–148Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jani JM, Leary M, Subic A, Gibson MA (2014) A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities. Mater Des 56(4):1078–1113Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lebied A, Necib B, Sahli ML, Gelin JC, Barrière T (2016) Numerical simulations and experimental results of tensile behaviour of hybrid composite shape memory alloy wires embedded structures. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86:359–369Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weinert K, Petzoldt V, Kötter D, Buschka M (2010) Drilling of NiTi shape memory alloys. Mater Werkst 35(5)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ulutan D, Ozel T (2011) Machining induced surface integrity in titanium and nickel alloys: a review. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(3):250–280Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun J, Guo YB (2009) A comprehensive experimental study on surface integrity by end milling Ti–6Al–4V. J Mater Process Technol 209(8):4036–4042Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pusavec F, Hamdi H, Kopac J, Jawahir IS (2011) Surface integrity in cryogenic machining of nickel based alloy—Inconel 718. J Mater Process Technol 211(4):773–783Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sauvage X, Breton JML, Guillet A, Teillet J (2003) Phase transformations in surface layers of machined steels investigated by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectrometry. Mater Sci Eng A 362(1):181–186Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaynak Y, Robertson SW, Karaca HE, Jawahir IS (2015) Progressive tool-wear in machining of room-temperature austenitic NiTi, alloys: the influence of cooling/lubricating, melting, and heat treatment conditions. J Mater Process Technol 215:95–104Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mehrpouya M, Shahedin AM, Dawood SDS, Ariffin AK (2017) An investigation on the optimum machinability of NiTi based shape memory alloy. Mater Manuf Process 32:1497–1504Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akhtar W, Sun J, Chen W (2016) Effect of machining parameters on surface integrity in high speed milling of super alloy GH4169/Inconel 718. Adv Manuf Process 31(5):620–627Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stipkovic MA, Bordinassi ÉC, Farias AD, Delijaicov S, Stipkovic MA (2017) Surface integrity analysis in machining of hardened AISI 4140 steel. Mat Res 20(ahead):387–394Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ramesh K, Akinori Y (2017) High-speed micromachining characteristics for the NiTi shape memory alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93:11–21Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pu Z, Outeiro JC, Batista AC (2012) Enhanced surface integrity of AZ31B Mg alloy by cryogenic machining towards improved functional performance of machined components. Int J Mach Tool Manu 56(1):17–27Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weinert K, Petzoldt V (2008) Machining NiTi micro-parts by micro-milling. Mater Sci Eng A 481(1):672–675Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tai TY, Nguyen KT (2016) The grain size effect of polycrystalline diamond on surface integrity by using micro EDM. Proc CIRP 42:305–310Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biermann D, Kahleyss F, Surmann T (2009) Micromilling of NiTi shape-memory alloys with ball nose cutters. Adv Manuf Process 24(12):1266–1273Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guo Y, Klink A, Fu C, Snyder J (2013) Machinability and surface integrity of nitinol shape memory alloy. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 62(1):83–86Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin HC, Lin KM, Chen YC (2000) A study on the machining characteristics of TiNi shape memory alloys. J Mater Process Technol 105(3):327–332Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaynak Y, Karaca HE, Jawahir IS (2011) Cryogenic machining of NiTi shape memory alloys. Int Conf Exh Des Prod Mach Dies/moldsGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaynak Y, Tobe H, Noebe RD, Karaca HE, Jawahir IS (2014) The effects of machining on the microstructure and transformation behavior of NiTi alloy. Scr Mater 74(3):60–63Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hassani M, Mousavi SA, Entezami SS (2012) The control process of nitinol alloy drilling through fuzzy logic. Majlesi J Mech SystGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weinert K, Petzoldt V (2003) Machining of NiTi based shape memory alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 378(1):180–184Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weinert K, Petzoldt V, Kötter D (2004) Turning and drilling of NiTi shape memory alloys. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53(1):65–68Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaynak Y, Karaca HE, Jawahir IS (2015) Cutting speed dependent microstructure and transformation behavior of NiTi alloy in dry and cryogenic machining. J Mater Eng Perform 24(1):452–460Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zailani ZA, Mativenga PT (2016) Effects of chilled air on machinability of NiTi shape memory alloy. Proc CIRP 2016(45):207–210Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guijie Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhanqiang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Weimin Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bing Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jintao Niu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture of MOE/Key National Demonstration Center for Experimental Mechanical Engineering EducationJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations