Incremental forming of non-stick pre-coated sheets

  • O. Rodriguez-Alabanda
  • Rafael Molleja-Molleja
  • Guillermo Guerrero-Vaca
  • Pablo E. RomeroEmail author


In this study, dummy technique is used to form pre-coated metal sheet via single point incremental forming (SPIF). The materials used in the experiments are widely used in the manufacture of non-stick molds and trays: Aluminized steel sheets are employed as substrate, and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin is utilized as coating. The influence of vertical depth, wall angle, and step size in the variation of coating thickness and surface roughness has been evaluated using a design of experiments. The results show that higher values of wall angle are associated to higher reductions in the coating thickness. On the other hand, an improvement in the surface roughness is appreciated in all cases, favored by the use of dummy method. Higher reductions in surface roughness are obtained when higher values of step size are programmed.


SPIF PTFE Pre-coated sheets SPIF or incremental forming Non-stick coating 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The authors were supported by the University of Cordoba, which has funded this work through the Plan Propio de Investigación and the Tecnimacor Company for its collaboration in the coating of the metal sheets.


  1. 1.
    Ueda K, Kanai H, Suzuki T, Amari T (2001) Effects of mechanical properties of paint film on the forming of pre-painted steel sheets. Prog Org Coat 43:233–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vayeda R, Wang J (2007) Adhesion of coatings to sheet metal under plastic deformation. Int J Adhes Adhes 27:480–492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim J-K, Yu T-X (1997) Forming and failure behaviour of coated, laminated and sandwiched sheet metals: a review. J Mater Process Technol 63:33–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buder-Stroisznigg M, Wallner GM, Straub B et al (2009) Structure-property correlations of flexible clear coats. Prog Org Coat 65:328–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ueda K, Kanai H, Amari T (2002) Formability of polyester/melamine pre-painted steel sheets from rheological aspect. Prog Org Coat 45:267–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Katajarinne T, Vihtonen L, Kivivuori S (2008) Incremental forming of colour-coated sheets. Int J Mater Form 1:1175–1178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Astarita A, Carrino L, Durante M, Formisano A, Langella A, Minutolo FMC, Paradiso V, Squillace A (2014) Experimental study on the incremental forming of coated aluminum alloy sheets. Key Eng Mater 622–623:398–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fiorotto M, Sorgente M, Lucchetta G (2010) Preliminary studies on single point incremental forming for composite materials. Int J Mater Form 3:951–954. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appermont R, Van Mieghem B, Van Bael A et al (2008) Sheet-metal based molds for low-pressure processing of thermoplastics. Pmi 383–388Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Afonso D, Pires L, de Sousa RA, Torcato R (2017) Direct rapid tooling for polymer processing using sheet metal tools. Procedia Manuf 13:102–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Afonso D, De Sousa RA, Torcato R (2017) Testing single point incremental forming molds for rotomoulding operations. AIP Conf Proc.
  12. 12.
    Drobny JG (2008) Technology of fluoropolymers. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thomas P (1998) The use of fluoropolymers for non-stick cooking utensils. Surf Coat Int 81(12):604–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davarpanah MA, Zhang Z, Bansal S, Cao J, Malhotra R (2016) Preliminary investigations on double sided incremental forming of thermoplastics. Manuf Lett 8:21–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang W, Chen S, Tao K, Gao K, Wei X (2017) Experimental investigation of limit drawing ratio for AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet in warm stamping. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:723–731. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borrego M, Morales-Palma D, Martínez-Donaire AJ, Centeno G, Vallellano C (2016) Experimental study of hole-flanging by single-stage incremental sheet forming. J Mater Process Technol 237:320–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guerrero-Vacas G (2013) Comparative analysis of the removal processes of fluoropolymer anti-adherent coatings on metallic surfaces between laser and pyrolytic technologies, PhD thesis. University of Malaga (
  18. 18.
    Ruiz-Cabello FJM, Rodríguez-Criado JC, Cabrerizo-Vílchez M, Rodríguez-Valverde MA, Guerrero-Vacas G (2017) Towards super-nonstick aluminized steel surfaces. Prog Org Coat 109:135–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Skjoedt M, Silva MB, Bay N, Martins PAF (2007) Single point incremental forming using a dummy sheet. In: Int. Conf. New Form. Technol. pp 267–276Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silva MB, Skjoedt M, Vilaça P, Bay N, Martins PAF (2009) Single point incremental forming of tailored blanks produced by friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 209:811–820. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whitford (2017) Industrial Coating Guide. Accessed 25 July 2017
  22. 22.
    Jeswiet J, Micari F, Hirt G, Bramley A, Duflou J, Allwood J (2005) Asymmetric single point incremental forming of sheet metal. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 54:88–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Azevedo NG, Farias JS, Bastos RP, Teixeira P, Davim JP, Alves de Sousa RJ (2015) Lubrication aspects during single point incremental forming for steel and aluminum materials. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 16:589–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rodriguez-Alabanda O, Narvaez M, Guerrero-Vaca G, Romero P (2018) Manufacturing of non-stick molds from pre-painted aluminum sheets via single point incremental forming. Appl Sci 8:1002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    UNE-EN ISO 2360 (2004) Non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive basis materials—measurement of coating thickness—amplitude-sensitive eddy current methodGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    UNE-EN ISO 4287 (1999) Geometrical product specifications (gps). Surface texture: profile method. Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. (iso 4287:1997+technical corrigendum 1)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Consumer Voice (2011) Saving time & trouble: non-stick frying pans. Consum. VoiceGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmidt A, Haering C (2002) Evaluation of commercial nonstick coatings for U.S. Army field-feeding Ccokware. Tech. Rep. Natick/TR-02/017Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Afonso D, Alves de Sousa R, Torcato R (2017) Integration of design rules and process modelling within SPIF technology—a review on the industrial dissemination of single point incremental forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:1–13. Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sisodia V, Kumar S (2018, May) Influence of process parameters on surface roughness in single point incremental forming using dummy sheet. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 361, No. 1.
  31. 31.
    Durante M, Formisano A, Langella A (2011) Observations on the influence of tool-sheet contact conditions on an incremental forming process. J Mater Eng Perform 20:941–946. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CordobaCordobaSpain

Personalised recommendations