5-axis CNC incremental forming toolpath planning and generation for the sheet metal part with multi-peaks

  • Hu ZhuEmail author
  • Xiaoguang Yang
  • Yibo Liu


The existing studies on the CNC incremental sheet metal forming technology are all for the sheet metal parts with either concave peaks or convex peaks, and rarely involve the sheet metal parts with both concave peaks and convex peaks. However, with the deepening of the research for the CNC incremental sheet metal forming technology, the forming of the multi-peak sheet metal parts with both concave peaks and convex peaks will become a hot research topic. Compared to 3-axis CNC incremental forming, 5-axis CNC incremental forming can extrude the blank in any desired direction because its extruding tool has even more freedom and is more suitable for the forming of the multi-peaks sheet metal parts. In this paper, 5-axis CNC incremental forming path planning and generation method based on STL model has been proposed for the sheet metal parts with both concave peaks and convex peaks. The forming path planning scheme and the algorithms for the cutter location point calculation, forming path planning and extruding tool posture calculation are also given, which are necessary for 5-axis CNC incremental forming path generation for the sheet metal part with both concave peaks and convex peaks. The case study shows that the proposed method can automatically generate smooth and continuous 5-axis CNC incremental toolpath and runs steadily and reliably.


Sheet metal forming CNC incremental forming 5-axis CNC incremental forming Forming toolpath CAD/CAM 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51175351).


  1. 1.
    Tisza M (2012) General overview of sheet incremental forming. Mater Des 55(1):113–120Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leacock AG (2012) The future of sheet metal forming research. Mater Manuf Process 27(4):366–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park JJ, Kim YH (2003) Fundamental studies on the incremental sheet metal forming technique. J Mater Process Technol 140(1–3):447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rauch M, Hascoet JY, Hamann JC, Plennel Y (2008) A new approach for toolpath programming in incremental sheet forming. Int J Mater Form 1(1):1191–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li M, Zhang LC, Mo JH, Lu Y (2012) Tool-path generation for sheet metal incremental forming based on STL model with defects. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63(5–8):535–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luo YX, He K, Du RX (2010) A new sheet metal forming system based on incremental punching, part 2 machine building and experiment results. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51(5–8):493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li M, Zhang LC, Mo JH, Lv Y (2012) Unit tool-path generation using sheet metal incremental forming process. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol 40(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mo JH, Han F (2008) State of the arts and latest research on incremental sheet NC forming technology. China Mech Eng 19(4):491–497Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhu H, Liu ZJ, Fu JH (2011) Spiral toolpath generation with constant scallop height for sheet metal CNC incremental forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 54(9–12):911–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Malhotra R, Reddy NV, Cao J (2010) Automatic 3D spiral toolpath generation for single point incremental forming. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 132(12):061003–061–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malhotra R, Bhattacharya A, Kumar A, Reddy NV, Cao J (2011) A new methodology for multi-pass single point incremental forming with mixed toolpaths. Ann CIRP 60(1):323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu Z, Li Y, Meehan PA (2014) Tool path strategies and deformation analysis in multi-pass incremental sheet forming process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75(1):395–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fiorentino A, Feriti GC, Ceretti E, Giardini C, Bort CMG, Bosetti P (2014) Development of tool path correction algorithm in incremental sheet forming. Key Eng Mater 622-623:382–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fu ZM, Mo JH, Han F, Pan G (2013) Tool path correction algorithm for single-point incremental forming of sheet metal. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 64(9–12):1239–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu J, Mo JH, Huang SH (2004) Sheet metal dieless forming and its toolpath generation based on STL files. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 23(9–10):696–699Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qu XZ, Brent S (2003) A 3D surface offset method for STL-format models. Rapid Prototyp J 9(3):133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang Z (2005) Research on the interference detection in 5-axis NC machining. Dissertation, Zhe Jiang UnivGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou PD (2011) Computation geometry-algorithm design and analysis, 4nd edn. Tsinghua Univ Press, Bei JingGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li DR, Li QQ (1997) Study on a hybrid data structure in 3D gis. Acta Geod Cartogr Sin 26(2):128–133Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weiss MA (2007) Data structures and algorithm analysis in C, 3nd edn. Addison-Wesley, BostonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wu F, Su WM (2006) Representation of topological spatial relations between contour lines based on terrain features. Eng J Wuhan Univ 39(3):140–144Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhu H, Yang XG (2014) A study on the interference detection and correction in 5-axis CNC incremental forming. Chin J Mech Eng 50(4):168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhu H, Li N (2013) A new STL model based approach for tool path generation in CNC incremental forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(1–4):277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhu H, Han FC, Liu YB (2018) The effect of the extrusion direction on the incremental forming quality considering tool deformation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(5–8):1835–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringShenyang Aerospace UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Science and Technology Training CenterGuidaojiaotong Polytechnic InstituteShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations