Comparison of methods to correlate input parameters with depth of penetration in LASER welding

  • Luiz Eduardo dos Santos PaesEmail author
  • Milton Pereira
  • Walter Lindolfo Weingaertner
  • Américo Scotti
  • Tiago Souza


Despite the industrial relevance of LASER welding, determination of sustainable parameterization is still a challenge. Trial and error, or even not totally justified methodologies, are frequently applied on LASER welding parametrization. This approach potentially leads to a decrease of the process tolerance and, consequently, increasing the likelihood of imperfections, which means extra operational time and raising of the final cost. The present paper addresses a comparative discussion about five factors experimentally determined and frequently used to predict depth of penetration in LASER welding. The experiments were performed with a 10-kW fiber LASER. In a first batch, power was varied while welding speed was fixed at 1 m/min. In a second batch, welding speed was varied and power was kept at 10 kW. The first demonstrated concern on using these popular factors is the definition and quantification of LASER energy. For evidencing this aspect, two samples were processed with the same welding energy of 120 kJ/m, yet resulting in completely different penetrations. Eventually, an empirical model based on power as a factor allowed a more reliable prediction of the depth of penetration.


Autogenous LASER welding Conduction LASER welding Keyhole welding Heat input Power density Power factor 


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The authors thank FINEP and BNDES for financing the LASER LABORATORY infrastructure and the Laboratory for Precision Engineering–LASER division (LMP-LASER) staff for the technical support.

Funding information

This work received financial support from CNPq.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Precision Engineering, Laser Division (LMP-Laser)Federal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda)Federal University of UberlandiaUberlândiaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Engineering Science, Production Technology West, Division of Welding TechnologyUniversity WestTrollhättanSweden

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