Characterizing the effect of process variables on energy consumption in end milling

  • Lirong Zhou
  • Fangyi LiEmail author
  • Fu Zhao
  • Jianfeng Li
  • John W. Sutherland


Manufacturing processes, such as machining, transform raw materials into finished goods, and these processes consume significant energy. There is an increasing concern about the energy required for such processes and the environmental consequences attributable to the generation of the energy. Reducing the energy required to perform machining operations will not only reduce the environmental footprint, but also provide economic benefits. To that end, the effects of cutting conditions (e.g., feed and speed) and tool geometry (diameter and number of teeth) on the power required for an end milling operation are investigated experimentally. Experimental results are presented from a cutting mechanism perspective with the goal of understanding the role of the process variables. The specific cutting energy (SCE) is found decreasing when material removal rate increases, but there is substantial variation about the general trend. In essence, the cutting parameters and the tool geometry influenced the changes of average chip thickness and cutting speed, which cause the shear deformation energy changes and eventually collectively influence the SCE’s change. Based on the experiments, suggestions on selecting process parameters are provided to improve milling energy efficiency.


Specific cutting energy Average chip thickness Energy efficiency of milling Green manufacturing 


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Magdalene Jackson is thanked for providing valuable insight and advice.

Funding information

Research of this paper is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 51675314) and Project from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (No. NO.201656261-1-3).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lirong Zhou
    • 1
  • Fangyi Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fu Zhao
    • 2
  • Jianfeng Li
    • 1
  • John W. Sutherland
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Environmental and Ecological EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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