Advertisement

Interface characteristics of Mg/Al bimetal produced by a novel liquid-liquid compound casting process with an Al interlayer

  • Qiang Hu
  • Zailiang Jiang
  • Wenming JiangEmail author
  • Guangyu Li
  • Feng Guan
  • Haixiao Jiang
  • Zitian Fan
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 45 Downloads

Abstract

Mg/Al bimetal was successfully prepared using a novel lost-foam casting (LFC) liquid-liquid compound process with an Al interlayer, and the interface characteristics including microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of the Mg/Al bimetal were investigated in this paper. The results show that the mixing of AZ91D and A356 liquid metals was fully avoided by using the Al interlayer. A metallurgical bonding between the AZ91D alloy matrix and the A356 alloy matrix was achieved, obtaining a compact interface. The interface was constituted by the Al12Mg17 + δ (Mg) eutectic and the Al3Mg2 and Mg2Si reaction layers, which were respectively next to the AZ91D alloy matrix and the A356 alloy matrix. The reaction layers had much higher microhardnesses compared with the microhardnesses of the matrixes, and the highest microhardness up to 275–299 HV was obtained in the reaction layer next to the Al matrix. A brittle fracture morphology was observed in the fractured surface of the Mg/Al bimetal, and the fracture mainly initiated with the fracture of the reaction layer close to the Al matrix.

Keywords

Mg/Al bimetal Compound casting Interlayer Interface Microstructure Mechanical properties 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Funding information

This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51775204 and 51204124), the fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in NWPU (No. SKLSP201821), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (No. 2017CFB488), and the Analytical and Testing Center, HUST.

References

  1. 1.
    Jiang WM, Chen X, Wang BJ, Fan ZT, Wu HB (2016) Effects of vibration frequency on microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of A356 aluminum alloy obtained by expendable pattern shell casting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):167–175.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7586-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang H, Chen YQ, Luo AA (2014) A novel aluminum surface treatment for improved bonding in magnesium/aluminum bimetallic castings. Scr Mater 86:52–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2014.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li GY, Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Jiang ZL, Liu XW, Liu FC (2017) Effects of pouring temperature on microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of Al/Mg bimetallic composites produced by lost foam casting process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(1–4):1355–1368.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9810-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kund NK (2018) Effect of tilted plate vibration on solidification and microstructural and mechanical properties of semisolid cast and heat-treated A356 Al alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(5–8):1617–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2063-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Campbell J (2011) Complete casting handbook, first edn. Elsevier Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Campbell J (2006) Entrainment defects. Mater Sci Technol 22(2):127–145.  https://doi.org/10.1179/174328406X74248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hajjari E, Divandari M, Razavi SH, Homma T, Kamado S (2012) Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of Al 413/Mg joint in compound casting process. Metall Mater Trans A 43(12):4667–4677.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-012-1296-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu GC, Luo AA, Chen YQ, Sachdev AK (2014) Interfacial phenomena in magnesium/aluminum bi-metallic castings. Mater Sci Eng A 595:154–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2013.11.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Li GY, Yang L, Liu XW (2016) Effects of melt-to-solid insert volume ratio on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al/Mg bimetallic castings produced by lost foam casting. Metall Mater Trans A 47(12):6487–6497.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3788-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu JC, Hu J, Nie XY, Li HX, Du Q, Zhang JS, Zhuang LZ (2015) The interface bonding mechanism and related mechanical properties of Mg/Al compound materials fabricated by insert molding. Mater Sci Eng A 635:70–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.03.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Islam MR, Ishak M, Shah LH, Idris SR, Meriç C (2016) Dissimilar welding of A7075-T651 and AZ31B alloys by gas metal arc plug welding method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9–12):2773–2783.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8993-6 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tabasi M, Farahani M, Besharati Givi MK, Farzami M, Moharami A (2016) Dissimilar friction stir welding of 7075 aluminum alloy to AZ31 magnesium alloy using SiC nanoparticles. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(1–4):705–715.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-8211-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mofid MA, Abdollah-Zadeh A, Gür CH (2014) Investigating the formation of intermetallic compounds during friction stir welding of magnesium alloy to aluminum alloy in air and under liquid nitrogen. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(5–8):1493–1499.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5565-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao Y, Jiang S, Yang SF, Lu ZP, Yan K (2016) Influence of cooling conditions on joint properties and microstructures of aluminum and magnesium dissimilar alloys by friction stir welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):673–679.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7624-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manladan SM, Yusof F, Ramesh S, Fadzil M (2016) A review on resistance spot welding of magnesium alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(5–8):1805–1825.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-8258-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feng B, Xin YC, Yu HH, Hong R, Liu Q (2016) Mechanical behavior of a Mg/Al composite rod containing a soft Mg sleeve and an ultra hard Al core. Mater Sci Eng A 675:204–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2016.08.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Feng B, Xin YC, Guo FL, Yu HH, Wu Y, Liu Q (2016) Compressive mechanical behavior of Al/Mg composite rods with different types of Al sleeve. Acta Mater 120:379–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2016.08.079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zha M, Meng XT, Zhang HM, Zhang XH, Jia HL, Li YJ, Zhang JY, Wang HY, Jiang QC (2017) High strength and ductile high solid solution Al-Mg alloy processed by a novel hard-plate rolling route. J Alloys Compd 728:872–877.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gali OA, Shafiei M, Hunter JA, Riahi AR (2016) The initiation of roll coating buildup during thermomechanical processing of aluminum-magnesium alloys. Surf Coat Technol 308:328–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.07.102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dai XY, Zhang HT, Wang B, Ji A, Liu JH, Feng JC (2016) Improving weld strength of arc-assisted ultrasonic seam welded Mg/Al joint with Sn interlayer. Mater Des 98:262–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.02.095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu F, Zhang ZD, Liu LM (2012) Microstructure evolution of Al/Mg butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc with Zn filler metal. Mater Charact 69:84–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2012.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang HT, Dai XY, Feng JC (2014) Joining of aluminum and magnesium via pre-roll-assisted A-TIG welding with Zn interlayer. Mater Lett 122:49–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2014.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Griffiths WD, Ainsworth MJ (2016) Instability of the liquid metal-pattern interface in the lost foam casting of aluminum alloys. Metall Mater Trans A 47:3137–3149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3461-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Liu DJ, Liao DF, Zhao Z, Dong XP, Wu HB (2012) Influence of process parameters on filling ability of A356 aluminium alloy in expendable pattern shell casting with vacuum and low pressure. Int J Cast Metal Res 25(1):47–52.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1743133611Y.0000000014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Charchi A, Rezaei M, Hossainpour S, Shayegh J, Falak S (2010) Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow of molten metal in MMA-St copolymer lost foam casting process. J Mater Process Technol 210(14):2071–2080.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.07.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Liu DJ, Wu HB (2013) Influence of gas flowrate on filling ability and internal quality of A356 aluminum alloy castings fabricated using the expendable pattern shell casting with vacuum and low pressure. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(9–12):2459–2468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4663-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Emami SM, Divandari M, Hajjari E, Arabi H (2013) Comparison between conventional and lost foam compound casting of Al/Mg light metals. Int J Cast Metal Res 26(1):43–50.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1743133612Y.0000000037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Liu DJ (2012) Microstructure, tensile properties and fractography of A356 alloy under as-cast and T6 obtained with expendable pattern shell casting process. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 22:S7–S13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(12)61676-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guler KA, Kisasoz A, Karaaslan A (2014) Fabrication of Al/Mg bimetal compound casting by lost foam technique and liquid-solid process. Mater Test 56(9):700–702.  https://doi.org/10.3139/120.110624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jiang WM, Li GY, Fan ZT, Wang L, Liu FC (2016) Investigation on the interface characteristics of Al/Mg bimetallic castings processed by lost foam casting. Metall Mater Trans A 47(5):2462–2470.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3395-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dezellus O, Zhe M, Bosselet F, Rouby D, Viala JC (2011) Mechanical testing of titanium/aluminium-silicon interface. Effect of T6 heat treatment. Mater Sci Eng A 528(6):2795–2803.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2010.12.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jiang WM, Fan ZT, Li GY, Li C (2016) Effects of zinc coating on interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum/steel bimetallic composites. J Alloys Compd 678:249–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.03.276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    He K, Zhao JH, Li P, He JS, Tang Q (2016) Investigation on microstructures and properties of arc-sprayed-Al/AZ91D bimetallic material by solid-liquid compound casting. Mater Des 112:553–564.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.09.085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hajjari E, Divandari M, Razavi SH, Homma T, Kamado S (2012) Intermetallic compounds and antiphase domains in Al/Mg compound casting. Intermetallics 23:182–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intermet.2011.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ren QS, Zhao CZ, Li ZB, Zhang HX (2015) Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Al bimetallic composite fabricated by compound casting. Mater Res Innov 19:S73–S78.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1432891715Z.0000000001520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu ZL, Ji SD, Meng XC (2018) Joining of magnesium and aluminum alloys via ultrasonic assisted friction stir welding at low temperature. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(9–12):4127–4136.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2255-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shah LH, Gerlich A, Zhou Y (2018) Design guideline for intermetallic compound mitigation in Al-Mg dissimilar welding through addition of interlayer. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(5–8):2667–2678.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1038-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jiang Z, Fan Z, Jiang W, Li G, Wu Y, Guan F, Jiang H (2018) Interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg/Al bimetal produced by a novel liquid-liquid compound casting process. J Mater Process Technol 261:149–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baqer YM, Ramesh S, Yusof F, Manladan SM (2018) Challenges and advances in laser welding of dissimilar light alloys: Al/Mg, Al/Ti, and Mg/Ti alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(9–12):4353–4369.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1565-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu ZL, Ji SD, Meng XC, Huang RF (2017) Improving joint formation and tensile properties of friction stir welded ultra-thin Al/Mg alloy sheets using a pinless tool assisted by a stationary shoulder. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(5–8):2071–2079.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0682-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiang Hu
    • 1
  • Zailiang Jiang
    • 1
  • Wenming Jiang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guangyu Li
    • 1
  • Feng Guan
    • 1
  • Haixiao Jiang
    • 1
  • Zitian Fan
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Lab of Materials Processing and Die & Mould TechnologyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations