Advertisement

Effect of geometry error on accuracy of large-diameter pads used for CMP dressing

  • X. X. BanEmail author
  • H. Y. Zhao
  • S. J. Zhao
  • R. Q. Xie
  • Y. W. Gu
  • X. L. Zhu
  • D. F. Liao
  • L. Li
  • Z. D. Jiang
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Large-diameter polishing pads play an important role in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and are vital to large-aperture plane optics. The surface profile of a wafer is closely related to the profile accuracy of the polyurethane pad. To attain a high-precision surface, the polishing pad is dressed using a diamond dresser. In the present study, a pad dressing model was proposed as a means of analysing how any geometry errors in the polishing machine affect the profile accuracy by observing the trajectory of the moving dresser tool. Based on the spherical surface generation method, the influence of any tilt and motion error on the profile accuracy of the pad was studied. To verify the accuracy of the model, a variety of analyses and dressing experiments were performed using PPS100 and KPJ1700 CMP machines. The results of these experiments showed that the proposed model could effectively predict the profile accuracy of the pad after the dressing process. However, because of uncertainty in the measurements, there was a degree of error between the predicted and measured values, although this was never > 5%. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the main geometry error was the dressing spindle’s tilt angle which, if minimised, resulted in a higher dressing profile accuracy for the polyurethane pad.

Keywords

Geometry error Profile accuracy Dressing Chemical mechanical polishing Polyurethane pad 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Funding information

This research was financially supported by the Science Challenge Project (No. JCKY2016212A506-0501) and the National Science and Technology Major Project (No. 2017ZX04022001-202) of China.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaufman F (1991) Chemical-mechanical polishing for fabricating patterned W metal features as chip interconnects. J Electrochem Soc 138(11):3460–3465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luo J, Dornfeld DA (2001) Material removal mechanism in chemical mechanical polishing: theory and modeling. IEEE T Semiconduct M 14(2):112–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Runnels SR (1994) Tribology analysis of chemical-mechanical polishing. J Electrochem Soc 141(6):1698–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nguyen NY, Zhong ZW, Tian YB (2016) Analysis and improvement of the pad wear profile in fixed abrasive polishing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(5–8):1159–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tsai MY, Chen ST, Liao YS, Sung J (2009) Novel diamond conditioner dressing characteristics of CMP polishing pad. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(9):722–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tso PL, Hsu R (2007) Estimating chemical mechanical polishing pad wear with compressibility. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 32(7–8):682–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen KS, Yeh HM, Yan JL, Chen YT (2009) Finite-element analysis on wafer-level CMP contact stress: reinvestigated issues and the effects of selected process parameters. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 42(11–12):1118–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin ZC, Wang RY, Ma SH (2017) Theoretical model and experimental analysis of chemical mechanical polishing with the effect of slurry for abrasive removal depth and surface morphology of silicon wafer. Tribol Int 117:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiu JT, Lin YY (2008) Optimization of carrier morphology in terms of Fourier sine series for chemical mechanical polishing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 39(3–4):414–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horng TL (2007) A model to simulate surface roughness in the pad dressing process. J Mech Sci Technol 21(10):1599–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xie RQ, Zhao SJ, Liao DF, Chen XH, Wang J, Xu Q, Zhao HY, Jiang ZD (2018) Numerical simulation and experimental study of surface waviness during full aperture rapid planar polishing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97(3):3273–3282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shin C, Qin H, Hong S, Jeon S, Kulkarni A, Kim T (2016) Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process. J Mech Sci Technol 30(12):5659–5665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yeh HM, Chen KS (2010) Development of a pad conditioning simulation module with a diamond dresser for CMP applications. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 50(1–4):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evans CJ, Paul E, Dornfeld D, Lucca DA, Byrne G, Tricard M, Klocke F, Dambon O, Mullany BA (2003) Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(2):611–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen CCA, Pham QP (2017) Study on diamond dressing for non-uniformity of pad surface topography in CMP process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9–12):3573–3582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou YY, Davis EC (1999) Variation of polish pad shape during pad dressing. Mater Sci Eng B 68(2):91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hunt JS (2000) National Ignition Facility Performance Review 1999. United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/15013275
  18. 18.
    Yan W, Guo YB, Li YG, Xu Q (2008) Pressure and velocity dependence of the material removal rate in the fast polishing process. Appl Opt 47(33):6236–6242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou P, Guo D, Kang R, Jin Z (2013) A mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication model with layered elastic theory for simulation of chemical mechanical polishing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(5–8):1009–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu D, Chen G, Hu Q (2017) Material removal model of chemical mechanical polishing for fused silica using soft nanoparticles. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9–12):3515–3525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li Y, Hou J, Xu Q, Wang J, Yang W, Guo Y (2008) The characteristics of optics polished with a polyurethane pad. Opt Express 16(14):10285–10293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liao D, Zhang Q, Xie R, Chen X, Zhao S, Wang J (2015) Deterministic measurement and correction of the pad shape in full-aperture polishing processes. J Eur Opt Soc-Rapid 10(2):1378–1381Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • X. X. Ban
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Y. Zhao
    • 1
  • S. J. Zhao
    • 2
  • R. Q. Xie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. W. Gu
    • 1
  • X. L. Zhu
    • 1
  • D. F. Liao
    • 2
  • L. Li
    • 3
  • Z. D. Jiang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Fine Optical Engineering Research CenterChengduChina
  3. 3.Beijing Machine Tool Research InstituteBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations