Optimisation of spark plasma sintering parameters of Al-CNTs-Nb nano-composite using Taguchi Design of Experiment
- 17 Downloads
Optimisation of process parameters is usually undertaken to achieve more efficient and cost-effective process conditions. This work deals with the optimisation of spark plasma sintering process parameters which include sintering temperature, pressure, dwell time and heating rate for the development of Al-CNTs-Nb nano-composite. Taguchi Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to design the sintering operation, while analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the contribution of the factor variables to the response variables of density and micro-hardness. The admixed powders were consolidated as designed with SPS machine, while the sintered compacts were characterised using optical microscope, Vickers hardness tester and Archimedes-based density tester. The results obtained were a maximum density of 2.68 g cm−3 (99.3% relative density) and maximum micro-hardness of 38.57 HV (0.37 GPa), while the optimal SPS parameters were sintering temperature of 630 °C, pressure of 30 MPa, dwell time of 10 min and heating rate of 200 °C/min. This work has achieved a 20% improvement in micro-hardness which is good for so many engineering applications.
KeywordsOptimisation Taguchi DOE Aluminium Carbon nanotubes ANOVA Spark plasma sintering
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was supported by the Centre for Energy and Electric Power (CEEP), Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, NRF and DHET through providing financial aid in part for this project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Suarez M, Fernandez MA, Menendez JL, Torrecillas R, Kessel HU, Hennicke J, Kirchner R, and Kessel T (2013) Challenges and opportunities for spark plasma sintering: a key technology for a new generation of materials B. Ertug (Ed.), Sintering applications, InTech, Rijeka, pp. Ch. 13Google Scholar
- 9.De Araujo, E.R., de Souza, M.M.S., Filho, F.A., Gonzalez, C.H., de Araújo Filho, O.O. 2012. Preparationofmetalmatrix aluminium alloys composites reinforced by silicon nitride and aluminium nitride through powder metallurgy techniques. Journal of Mater Sci forum, 727–728, 259–262. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.727-728.259
- 12.Song M (2009) Effects of volume fraction of SiC particles on mechanical properties of SiC/Al composites. J Trans Nonferr Met Soc China 19:1400–1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60040-6
- 13.Ebisawa M, Hara T, Hayashi T, Ushio H (1991) Production Process of Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Engine Block,1991, https://doi.org/10.4271/910835
- 14.Hunt WH Jr (2000) Aluminium metal matrix composites today. Mater Sci Forum 331–337:71–84. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.331-337.71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Guo B, Song M, Y.I, J.,Y.I, J, N.I S, Shen T and Du Y (2017) Improving the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes reinforced pure aluminium matrix composites by achieving non-equilibrium interface J Mater Des, 120: 56–65Google Scholar
- 16.Chen B, Kondoh K (2016) Sintering behaviours of carbon nanotubes-aluminium powder composites. J Metall. https://doi.org/10.3390/met6090213
- 19.Liu, Z.Y., Xiao, B.L. and Ma, Z.Y. 2011. Fabrication of CNTs-Al composites with enhanced dispersion pre-treatment. 18th ICCM international conference on composite materials, KoreaGoogle Scholar
- 24.Reddy R (2003) Processing of Nano scale materials, rev. Adv Mater Sci 5:121–133Google Scholar
- 30.Chieh K, Te-Tan L, Kuo-Hwa T, Kuo-Ying C, Ming-Shuing C (2009) The influences of powder mixing process on the quality of W-cu composites. J Trans Can Soc Mech Eng 33(3)Google Scholar
- 31.Ranjit KR and Suren ND (2001) Design of Experiments (DOE) Using the Taguchi Approach. [Online]. Available from: http://Nutek-us.com/wp-s4d.html. [Accessed: 9/3/2018]