Advertisement

Review on intermittent local loading forming of large-size complicated component: deformation characteristics

  • Da-Wei ZhangEmail author
  • Xiao-Guang Fan
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 129 Downloads

Abstract

Intermittent local loading forming is an important aspect of less-force plastic forming technologies. It has many advantages such as high flexibility of the forming process, multiplicity of loading way, and multiple controllable degree of freedom, and thus it shows a good prospect of application in plastic forming for an irregular integral component with a large-size and complicated structure, such as the large-size rib-web integral component. Up to now, the intermittent local loading methods used to manufacture a large-size complicated component can be classified into three categories such as local loading by simple punch, local loading by bolster plate, and local loading by partial die. The state-of-art of three local loading processes was summarized from four aspects such as actualization in industry of local loading process, loading state and metal flow during local loading process, influence of friction on local loading process, and defect and control during local loading process.

Keywords

Bulk forming Intermittent local loading Less-force forming Large-size complicated forging Rib-web component 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is for the memory of Prof. He Yang. The work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51675415) and the fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in NWPU (SKLSP201623).

References

  1. 1.
    Kleinera M, Geigerb M, Klaus A (2003) Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(2):521–542Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yang H, Zhan M, Liu YL, Xian FJ, Sun ZC, Lin Y, Zhang XG (2004) Some advanced plastic processing technologies and their numerical simulation. J Mater Process Technol 151:63–69Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moiseyev VN (2006) Titanium alloys: Russian aircraft and aerospace applications. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang H, Fan XG, Sun ZC, Guo LG, Zhan M (2011) Recent development in plastic forming technology of titanium alloys. Sci China Tech Sci 54(2):490–501Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2012) Isothermal local loading forming technology of large-scale integral titanium alloy bulkhead. Forg Metalform 21:32–38 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang X, Wang B, Zhou J, Ji H, Mu Y, Li J (2017) Comparative study of warm and hot cross-wedge rolling: numerical simulation and experimental trial. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:3541–3551Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhuang W, Hua L, Wang X, Liu Y, Han X, Dong L (2015) Numerical and experimental investigation of roll-forging of automotive front axle beam. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79:1761–1777Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhu S, Yang H, Guo L, Hu L, Chen X (2014) Research on the effects of coordinate deformation on radial-axial ring rolling process by FE simulation based on in-process control. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72:57–68Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han X, Hua L (2012) Investigation on contact parameters in cold rotary forging using 3D FE method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 62:1087–1106Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhan M, Guo J, Fu MW, Li R, Gao PF, Long H, Ma F (2018) Formation mechanism and control of flaring in forward tube spinning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:59–72Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang DW, Zhao SD, Ou HA (2016) Analysis of motion between rolling die and workpiece in thread rolling process with round dies. Mech Mach Theory 105:471–494Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang X, Dong X, Wu Y (2017) An upper bond solution of forging load in cold radial forging process of rectangular cross-section billet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:2765–2776Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang Q, Jin K, Mu D, Zhang Y, Li Y (2015) Energy-controlled rotary swaging process for tube workpiece. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80:2015–2016Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    He X (2011) Effects of manipulator compliant movements on the quality of free forging based on FEM simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 56:905–913Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bračun D, Škulj G, Kadiš M (2017) Spectral selective and difference imaging laser triangulation measurement system for on line measurement of large hot workpieces in precision open die forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:917–926Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kopp R, Schmitz A (1996) Plastic working in Germany and related environmental issues. J Mater Process Technol 59(3):186–198Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang DW, Zhao SD, Ou HA ((2016)) Motion characteristic between die and workpiece in spline rolling process with round dies. Adv Mech Eng 8(7):1–12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang DW (2012) Forming regulation and preform design of large-scale complex titanium alloy component in isothermal local loading process. PhD Dissertation, Northwestern Polytechnical University. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2015) Analytical and numerical analyses of local loading forming process of T-shape component by using Coulomb, shear and hybrid friction models. Tribol Int 92:259–271Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Groche P, Fristsche D, Tekkaya EA, Allwood JM, Hirt G, Neugebauer R (2007) Incremental bulk metal forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 56(2):635–656Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xia Q, Xiao G, Long H, Cheng X, Sheng X (2014) A review of process advancement of novel metal spinning. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 85:100–121Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhi Y, Wang X, Wang S, Liu X (2018) A review on the rolling technology of shape flat products. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:4507–4518Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang H, Wu C, Li HW, Fan XG, Zhang DW, Ji Z (2011) Review on development of key technologies in plastic forming of titanium alloy. Mater China 30(6):6–13Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang H, Fan XG, Sun ZC, Guo LG, Zhan M (2011) Some advances in local loading precision forming of large scale integral complex components of titanium alloys. Mater Res Innov 15(s1):S493–S498Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang H, Li HW, Fan XG, Sun ZC, Zhang DW, Guo LG, Li H, Zhan M (2011) Technologies for advanced forming of large-scale complex-structure titanium components. In: Hirt G, Tekkaya AE (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity (ICTP2011). Verlag Stahleisen Gmbh, Dusseldorf, pp 115–120Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Altan T, et al (1982) Modern forging: equipment, materials and process, Lu S, translated, Defence Industrial Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Welschof K, Kopp R (1987) Incremental forging—a flexible forming technology which improves energy and material efficiency. Aluminium 63(2):168–172 (in German)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sturm JC, Welschof K, Binding J, Janssen W, Mahlke M, Sprangers W (1987) Methods of saving energy and materials in the manufacture of integrated aircraft structural components. Aluminium 63(11):1157–1162 (in German)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee YH, Kopp R (2001) Application of fuzzy control for a hydraulic forging machine. Fuzzy Set System 188(1):99–108MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ssemakula H, Ståhlerg U, Öberg K (2006) Close-die forging of large Cu-lids by a method of low force requirement. J Mater Process Technol 178:119–127Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hao NH, Xue KM, Lü Y (1998) Numerical simulation on forming process of ear portion of upper case. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 8(4):602–605Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lü Y, Shan DB, Xue KM, Wang Z, Xu FC, Kong XY, Zhao YZ, Hao NH (2000) Research and application on isothermal precision forging process of large and complex forging [J]. Machinist Metal Form (2):15–16 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shan DB, Hao NH, Lu Y (2004) Research on isothermal precision forging processes of a magnesium-alloy upper housing. In: Ghosh S, Castro JC, Lee JK (eds) AIP Conference Proceedings, vol 712. American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York, pp 636–641Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yang P, Shan DB, Gao SS, Xu WC, Lv Y (2006) Research on isothermal precision technology of rib-web forging parts. Forg Stamp Technol 31(3):55–58 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Si CH, Shan DB, Lu Y (2006) Research on the key technology of near net forming of aluminum alloy hatch. Mater Sci Technol 14(3):236–239, 243 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shan DB, Xu WC, Si CH, Lu Y (2007) Research on local loading method for an aluminium-alloy hatch with cross ribs and thin webs. J Mater Process Technol 187–188:480–485Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li L, Liu XL (2010) Research on hot-die forging technology for titanium alloy diaphragm forging. Forg Stamp Technol 35(6):11–13 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martin WA (1972) Heavy press forging apparatus and method. United States Patent, US3638471Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martin WA (1978) Forging press and method. United States Patent, US4096730Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Delgado HE, Howson TE (1998) Closed-die forging process and rotationally incremental forging press. European Patent, EP0846505A2Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ren YL, Nie SM (2000) Research on new forging method of large integral container head. Heavy Mach 5:20–22 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhou XH, Guo HZ (2003) Die design for super-large rotating disc forging. Forg Stamp Technol 28(5):65–68 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fan SQ, Zhao SD, Han XL, Xu F, Zhang Q (2012) Numerical simulation and experiment of new forming process of shroud disk of impeller. Forg Metalform 21:40–47 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sarkisian JM, Palitsch JR, Zecco JJ (1999) Stepped, segmented, closed-die forging. United States Patent, US5950481Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang MH, Ma PC, Zhou JF, Wu DX, Zeng QH (2017) Control of local loading forming quality for aluminum alloy heavy forging based on RSM. J Cent South Univ (Sci Technol) 48(5):1155–1161 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zheng SJ, Zhou J, Li J, Wu DX, Zhou JF, Zhao TS (2017) Quality control on local loading of a large air aluminum-alloy forging. Forg Stamp Technol 42(9):1–5 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang DW, Li HJ, Dong P, Zhao SD (2017) A hydraulic system of local loading hydraulic press. China Patent, 201711270024.9. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2015) Loading state in local loading forming process of large sized complicated rib-web component. Aircr Eng Aerosp Technol 87(3):206–217Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC (2010) Analysis of local loading forming for titanium-alloy T-shaped components using slab method. J Mater Process Technol 210:258–266Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2013) Metal flow characteristics of local loading forming process for rib-web component with unequal-thickness billet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:1949–1965Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu YJ, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2006) Simulation on influence of local loading conditions on material flow during rib-web component forming. China Mech Eng 17(S1):12–15 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sun ZC, Yang H (2008) Characteristic of large-scale and complex rib-web components isothermal local loading forming. In: Yang DY, Kim YH, Park CH (eds) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity (ICTP2008). Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity, Seoul, pp 1585–1590Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2013) Numerical study of the friction effects on the metal flow under local loading way. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:1339–1350Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wold S, Martens H, Wold H (1983) The multivariate calibration problem in chemistry solved by the PLS method. Lect Notes Math 97:286–293zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wold S, Sjöström M, Eriksson L (2001) PLS-regression: a basic tool of chemometrics. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 58:109–130Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2014) Development of transition condition for the region with variable-thickness in isothermal local loading process. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 24(4):1101–1108MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2015) Fast analysis on metal flow in isothermal local loading process for multi-ribs component using slab method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79:1805–1820Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Altan T, Oh SI, Gegel HL (1983) Metal forming: fundamentals and application. American Society for Metals, Metal ParkGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lange K (1985) Handbook of metal forming. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Groche P, Müller C, Stahlmann J, Zang S (2013) Mechanical conditions in bulk metal forming tribometers—Part one. Tribol Int 62:223–231Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Petersen SB, Martins PAF, Bay N (1997) Friction in bulk metal forming: a general friction model vs. the law of constant friction. J Mater Process Technol 66:186–194Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ghassemali E, Tan MJ, Jarfors AEW, Lim SCV (2013) Progressive microforming process: towards the mass production of micro-parts using sheet metal. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66:611–621Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Huang MN, Tzou GY (2002) Study on compression forming of a rotating disk considering hybrid friction. J Mater Process Technol 125–126:421–426Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kobayashi S, Oh SI, Altan T (1989) Metal forming and the finite-element method. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tan X (2002) Comparisons of friction models in bulk metal forming. Tribol Int 35:385–393Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhang Q, Felder E, Bruschi S (2009) Evaluation of friction condition in cold forging by using T-shape compression test. J Mater Process Technol 209:5720–5729Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gavrus A, Francillette H, Pham DT (2012) An optimal forward extrusion device proposed for numerical and experiment analysis of materials tribological properties corresponding to bulk forming processes. Tribol Int 47:105–121Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Joun MS, Moon HG, Choi IS, Lee MC, Jun BY (2009) Effects of friction laws on metal forming processes. Tribol Int 42:311–319Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang DW, Ou HA Relationship between friction parameters in Coulomb-Tresca friction model for bulk metal forming. Tribol Int 95:13–18Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Li HW, Fan XG (2012) Friction factor evaluation by FEM and experiment for TA15 titanium alloy in isothermal forming process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60:527–536Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang DW (2017) Friction and influence in FEM simulation of local loading process for titanium alloy rib-web component. Aeronaut Manuf Technol 4:34–41 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2010) A New FE Modeling method for isothermal local loading process of large-scale complex titanium alloy components based on DEFORM-3D. In: Frederic Barlat F, Moon YH, Lee MG (eds) AIP Conference Proceedings, vol 1252. American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York, pp 439–446Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG (2014) Quantitative analysis of the material flow in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75:1339–1347Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei P (2015) Forming defects control in transitional region during isothermal local loading of Ti-alloy rib-web component. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76:857–868Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Malayappan S, Narayanasamy R (2004) An experiment analysis of upset forging of aluminium cylindrical billets considering the dissimilar friction conditions at flat die surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 23:636–643Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shan DB, Zhang YQ, Wang Y, Xu FC, XU WC, Lü Y (2006) Defect analysis of complex-shape aluminum alloy forging. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 16(S3):1574–1579Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2012) Deformation behavior under die partitioning boundary during titanium alloy large-scale rib-web component forming by isothermal local loading. In: Zhou L, Chang H, Lu YF, Xu DS (eds) Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Titanium. Science Press, Beijing, pp 328–332Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sun ZC, Yang H, Sun NG (2009) Simulation on local loading partition during titanium bulkhead isothermal forming process. J Plast Eng 16(1):138–143 (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2012) Deformation behavior of variable-thickness region of billet in rib-web component isothermal local loading process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:1–12Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sun ZC, Yang H ((2008)) Mechanism of unequal deformation during large-scale complex integral component isothermal local loading forming. Steel Res Int 79(Special 1):601–608Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sun ZC, Yang H, Sun NG (2012) Effects of parameters on inhomogeneous deformation and damage in isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy component. J Mater Eng Perform 21(3):313–323Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sun ZC, Yang H (2009) Microstructure and mechanical properties of TA15 titanium alloy under multi-step local loading forming. Mater Sci Eng A 523:184–192Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fan XG, Gao PF, Yang H (2011) Microstructure evolution of the transitional region in isothermal local loading of TA15 titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 528:2694–2703Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2013) Preform design for large-scale bulkhead of TA15 titanium alloy based on local loading features. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67:2551–2562Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wei K, Yang H, Fan XG, Gao PF (2015) Unequal thickness billet design for large-scale titanium alloy rib-web components under isothermal closed-die forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81:729–744Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sun ZC, Yang H (2009) Analysis on process and forming defects of large-scale complex integral component isothermal local loading. Mater Sci Forum 614:117–122Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zhang DW, Yang H (2014) Distribution of metal flowing into unloaded area in the local loading process of titanium alloy rib-web component. Rare Metal Mater Eng 43(2):296–300Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gao PF, Liu ZF, Lei ZN (2017) Deformation characteristics of transitional region during local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component on the double-action process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93:599–567Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei PH (2015) Quick prediction of the folding defect in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of titanium alloy large-scale rib-web component based on folding index. J Mater Process Technol 219:101–111Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei P (2015) Forming limit of local loading forming of Ti-alloy large-scale rib-web components considering defects in the transitional region. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80:1015–1026Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei PH, Meng M (2014) Prediction of folding defect in transitional region during local loading forming of titanium alloy large-scale rib-web component. Procedia Eng 81:528–533Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Park JJ, Hwang HS (2007) Preform design for precision forging of an asymmetric rib-web type component. J Mater Process Technol 187–188:595–599Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang DW, Yang H, Sun ZC, Fan XG (2011) Influences of fillet radius and draft angle on the local loading process of titanium alloy T-shaped components. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 21(12):2693–2074Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gao PF, Li XD, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei ZN (2017) Influence of die parameters on the deformation inhomogeneity of transitional region during local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:2109–2119Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gao PF, Li XD, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei ZN (2017) Improving the process forming limit considering forming defects in the transitional region in local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web components. Chin J Aeronaut 30(3):1270–1280Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sun ZC, Yang H (2009) Forming quality of titanium alloy large-scale integral components isothermal local loading. Arab J Sci Eng 34(1C):35–45MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wei K, Fan XG, Zhan M, Yang H, Gao PF (2017) Improving the deformation homogeneity of the transitional region in local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component by optimizing unequal-thickness billet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:4017–4029Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wei K, Zhan M, Fan XG, Yang H, Gao PF, Meng M (2018) Unequal-thickness billet optimization in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component using response surface method. Chin J Aeronaut 31(4):845–859Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fan XG, Yang H, Sun ZC, Zhang DW (2010) Effect of deformation inhomogeneity on the microstructure and mechanical properties of large-scale rib-web component of titanium alloy under local loading forming. Mater Sci Eng A 527:5391–5399Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, School of Mechanical EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Lab of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations