Advertisement

Calculation and verification of Start/Stop optimum overlapping rate on metal DLF technology

  • Yu Zhao
  • Tianbiao Yu
  • Baichun Li
  • Zhao Wang
  • Hao Chen
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 50 Downloads

Abstract

Laser cladding represents an advanced repair and modification technology for the failed parts and high-performance parts of controlled the surface onto the needing area. When the cylinder geometry or complex geometry which has circular and partition fusion is required, maybe there appears an overlap in poles of the laser clad track and linear or circular clad edge zone, and in Start/Stop zone of the laser clad track. When the distance of the overlap is not attached importance, the unsuitable height of the overlapping region may result in the defect of the coatings and even the failure of the parts. This paper establishes T-shape overlapping model and Start-Stop overlapping model, and reports several overlap strategies that are used to verify the model and tested to solve the overlapping problem. The 500W IPG fiber laser was used to perform laser cladding experiments, 45 steel substrate size: 100 × 100 × 10 mm and coating powder: YCF101 alloy powder. 3D measuring laser microscope was used to study the height of overlapping zone by different overlapping strategies. These strategies were designed according to different combinations of the poles and clad edge. Coating height inside the overlap zone was identified and overlapping formula was verified for YCF101alloy.

Keywords

Laser cladding Surface morphology Defects Theoretical model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (No. 201675514), the Key Laboratory of Shenyang (No.F15153100), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Shenyang (No.18006001), the State Natural Sciences Foundation (No.51505075), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.160306006).

References

  1. 1.
    Verma A, Tyagi S, Yang K (2015) Modeling and optimization of direct metal laser sintering process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77:847–860.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-6443-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    He B, Li D, Zhang A, Ge J, Yang X, Hu X (2013) Influence of scanning pattern on the edge collapse of solid parts in laser metal direct forming. Opt Laser Technol 48:171–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2012.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peng L, Taiping Y, Sheng L, Dongsheng L, Qianwu H, Weihao X, Xiaoyan Z (2005) Direct laser fabrication of nickel alloy samples. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(11):1288–1294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.01.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Santos EC, Shiomi M, Osakada K, Laoui T (2006) Rapid manufacturing of metal components by laser forming. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46(12–13):1459–1468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Song L, Xiao H, Ye J, Li S (2016) Direct laser cladding of layer-band-free ultrafine Ti6Al4V alloy. Surf Coat Technol 307:761–771.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gao W, Zhao S, Wang Y, Liu F, Zhou C, Lin X (2014) Effect of re-melting on the cladding coating of Fe-based composite powder. Mater Des 64:490–496.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang C, Du L, Zhang W (2009) Effects of solid lubricant content on the microstructure and properties of NiCr/Cr3C2–BaF2·CaF2 composite coatings. J Alloys Compd 479(1–2):777–784.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.01.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ocelík V, Eekma M, Hemmati I, De Hosson JTM (2012) Elimination of start/stop defects in laser cladding. Surf Coat Technol 206(8–9):2403–2409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.10.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun G-F, Zhang Y-K, Liu C-S, Luo K-Y, Tao X-Q, Li P (2010) Microstructure and wear resistance enhancement of cast steel rolls by laser surface alloying NiCr–Cr3C2. Mater Des 31(6):2737–2744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.01.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu H, Hu Z, Qin X, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang S (2017) Parameter optimization and experimental study of the sprocket repairing using laser cladding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9–12):3967–3975.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0066-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zheng H, Cong M, Dong H, Liu Y, Liu D (2017) CAD-based automatic path generation and optimization for laser cladding robot in additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(9–12):3605–3614.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0384-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Birger EM, Moskvitin GV, Polyakov AN, Arkhipov VE (2011) Industrial laser cladding: current state and future. Weld Int 25(3):234–243.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2010.540880 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gorunov AI, Gilmutdinov AK (2016) Study of the effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the specimens obtained by the method of direct metal deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(9–12):2567–2574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8405-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu H, Hao J, Han Z, Yu G, He X, Yang H (2016) Microstructural evolution and bonding characteristic in multi-layer laser cladding of NiCoCr alloy on compacted graphite cast iron. J Mater Process Technol 232:153–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu J, Yu H, Chen C, Weng F, Dai J (2017) Research and development status of laser cladding on magnesium alloys: a review. Opt Lasers Eng 93:195–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2017.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meco S, Pardal G, Ganguly S, Miranda RM, Quintino L, Williams S (2012) Overlap conduction laser welding of aluminium to steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(1–4):647–654.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4512-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang X, Huang T, Yang W, Xiao R, Liu Z, Li L (2016) Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam-welded AA2060 Al-Li alloy. J Mater Process Technol 237:301–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang Y, Lu F, Cui H, Cai Y, Guo S, Tang X (2016) Investigation on the effects of parameters on hot cracking and tensile shear strength of overlap joint in laser welding dissimilar Al alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(9–12):2895–2904.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8383-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arias-González F, del Val J, Comesaña R, Penide J, Lusquiños F, Quintero F, Riveiro A, Boutinguiza M, Pou J (2017) Laser cladding of phosphor bronze. Surf Coat Technol 313:248–254.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.01.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carter LN, Martin C, Withers PJ, Attallah MM (2014) The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy. J Alloys Compd 615:338–347.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.06.172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, Bernard A, Schulz J, Graf P, Ahuja B, Martina F (2016) Design for additive manufacturing: trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Ann 65(2):737–760.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2016.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang Z, Wang A, Weng Z, Xiong D, Ye B, Qi X (2017) Porosity elimination and heat treatment of diode laser-clad homogeneous coating on cast aluminum-copper alloy. Surf Coat Technol 321:26–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.04.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Przestacki D, Majchrowski R, Marciniak-Podsadna L (2016) Experimental research of surface roughness and surface texture after laser cladding. Appl Surf Sci 388:420–423.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.12.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang D, Wang H, Cui H, He G (2016) Enhancement of the laser welded AA6061-carbon steel joints by using Al5Si intermediate layer. J Mater Process Technol 237:277–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.06.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lei X, Huajun C, Hailong L, Yubo Z (2016) Study on laser cladding remanufacturing process with FeCrNiCu alloy powder for thin-wall impeller blade. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5–8):1383–1392.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9445-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang X, Sun W, Chen Y, Zhang J, Huang Y, Huang H (2018) Research on trajectory planning of complex curved surface parts by laser cladding remanufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(5–8):2397–2406.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-1737-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saqib SM, Urbanic RJ (2017) Investigation of the transient characteristics for laser cladding beads using 420 stainless steel powder. J Manuf Sci Eng 139:081009.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4036488 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Calleja A, Tabernero I, Fernández A, Celaya A, Lamikiz A, López de Lacalle LN (2014) Improvement of strategies and parameters for multi-axis laser cladding operations. Opt Lasers Eng 56:113–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2013.12.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ren L, Sparks T, Ruan J, Liou F (2008) Process planning strategies for solid freeform fabrication of metal parts. J Manuf Syst 27(4):158–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2009.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations