Experimental study on energy dissipation characteristics of adiabatic shear evolution in high-speed machining of U75V steel

  • Liyao GuEmail author


As one of the main characteristics in high-speed machining process, the adiabatic shear evolution induced energy dissipation influences the development of serrated chip and tool failure, which was further investigated experimentally in this work. Through the high-speed machining experiment of U75V rail steel by applying the cemented carbide insert, the development of chip morphology accompanying with the adiabatic shear evolution and tool failure with the cutting speed increasing were investigated microscopically. Based on the adiabatic shear saturation limit analysis, the energy dissipation theory was further proposed to evaluate the energy dissipation accumulation and energy dissipation rate of adiabatic shear evolution. The influences of energy dissipation characteristics related to physical and mechanical properties on the tool failure were revealed and discussed. It was concluded from the analysis of experimental results that the energy dissipation of adiabatic shear evolution from adiabatic shear banding to fracture, resulting in the thermal and mechanical coupling, mainly influenced the mechanisms of tool failure on the rake face. The occurrence of adiabatic shear fracture weakened the friction effect on the rake face. The energy dissipation theory of adiabatic shear evolution reasonably assessed the tool failure characteristics in high-speed machining process.


High-speed machining Rail steel Energy dissipation Adiabatic shear Tool failure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Thanks for the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51601155). Thanks for the contribution to this work from Ms. Nan Cui.


  1. 1.
    Gu L, Wang M, Duan C (2013) On adiabatic shear localized fracture during serrated chip evolution in high speed machining of hardened AISI 1045 steel. Int J Mech Sci 75:288–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gu L, Kang G, Chen H, Wang M (2016) On adiabatic shear fracture in high-speed machining of martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steel. J Mater Process Technol 234:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Recht R (1964) Catastrophic thermoplastic shear. J Appl Mech 31:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Komanduri R, Schroeder T, Hazra J, Von Turkovich B, Flom D (1982) On the catastrophic shear instability in high-speed machining of an AISI 4340 steel. J Eng Ind (Trans ASME) 104:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shaw M, Vyas A (1998) The mechanism of chip formation with hard turning steel. Cirp Ann-Manuf Technol 47:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elbestawi M, Srivastava A, El-Wardany T (1996) A model for chip formation during machining of hardened steel. Cirp Ann-Manuf Technol 45:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poulachon G, Moisan A (2000) Hard turning: chip formation mechanisms and metallurgical aspects. J Manuf Sci Eng 122:406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minjie W, Chunzheng D, Hongbo L (2004) Experimental study on adiabatic shear behavior in chip formation during orthogonal cutting. Chin J Mech Eng:7–10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Su G, Liu Z (2010) An experimental study on influences of material brittleness on chip morphology. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guo Y, Sahni J (2004) A comparative study of hard turned and cylindrically ground white layers. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hua J, Shivpuri R (2004) Prediction of chip morphology and segmentation during the machining of titanium alloys. J Mater Process Tech 150:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ginting A, Nouari M (2006) Experimental and numerical studies on the performance of alloyed carbide tool in dry milling of aerospace material. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46:758–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calamaz M, Limido J, Nouari M, Espinosa C, Coupard D, Salaun M, Girot F, Chieragatti R (2009) Toward a better understanding of tool wear effect through a comparison between experiments and SPH numerical modelling of machining hard materials. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 27:595–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jawaid A, Sharif S, Koksal S (2000) Evaluation of wear mechanisms of coated carbide tools when face milling titanium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 99:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghani A, Che Haron J, Hamdan CH, Md Said AY SH, Tomadi SH (2013) Failure mode analysis of carbide cutting tools used for machining titanium alloy. Ceram Int 39:4449–4456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang S, Li J, Deng J, Li Y (2009) Investigation on diffusion wear during high-speed machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy with straight tungsten carbide tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang S, Li J, Sun J, Jiang F (2010) Tool wear and cutting forces variation in high-speed end-milling Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 46:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Su G, Liu Z (2012) Wear characteristics of nano TiAlN-coated carbide tools in ultra-high speed machining of AerMet100. Wear 289:124–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Dargusch M (2017) Effect of tool wear on chip formation during dry machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, part 1: effect of gradual tool wear evolution. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 231:1559–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cui X, Zhao B, Jiao F, Zheng J (2016) Chip formation and its effects on cutting force, tool temperature, tool stress, and cutting edge wear in high- and ultra-high-speed milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barry J, Byrne G, Lennon D (2001) Observations on chip formation and acoustic emission in machining Ti6Al4V alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41:1055–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee W-S, Chiu C-C (2006) Deformation and fracture behavior of 316L sintered stainless steel under various strain rate and relative sintered density conditions. Metall Mater Trans A 37A:3685–3696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cui X, Zhao J, Dong Y (2013) The effects of cutting parameters on tool life and wear mechanisms of CBN tool in high-speed face milling of hardened steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66:955–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ozel T, Breve R, Zeren E (2006) A methodology to determine work material flow stress and tool-chip interfacial friction properties by using analysis of machining. Trans-Am Soc Mech Eng J Manuf Sci Eng 128:119Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guo Y, Yen D (2004) A FEM study on mechanisms of discontinuous chip formation in hard machining. J Mater Process Technol 155:1350–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marchand A, Duffy J (1988) Experimental study of the formation process of adiabatic shear bands in a structural steel. J Mech Phys Solids 36:251–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liao Sc DJ (1998) Adiabatic shear bands in a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. J Mech Phys Solids 46:2201–2231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yang Y, Li X, Tong X, Zhang Q, Xu C (2011) Effects of microstructure on the adiabatic shearing behaviors of titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 528:3130–3133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grady D, Kipp M (1987) Growth of unstable thermoplastic shear with application to steady-wave shock compression in solids. J Mech Phys Solids 35:95–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dodd B, Bai Y (1989) Width of adiabatic shear bands formed under combined stresses. Mater Sci Technol 5:557–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhou M, Rosakis A, Ravichandran G (1996) Dynamically propagating shear bands in impact-loaded prenotched plates--I. Experimental investigations of temperature signatures and propagation speed. J Mech Phys Solids 44:981–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Murr L, Ramirez A, Gaytan S, Lopez M, Martinez E, Hernandez D, Martinez E (2009) Microstructure evolution associated with adiabatic shear bands and shear band failure in ballistic plug formation in Ti-6Al-4V targets. Mater Sci Eng A 516:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rittel D, Wang Z, Merzer M (2006) Adiabatic shear failure and dynamic stored energy of cold work. Phys Rev Lett 96:75502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ramalho A, Miranda J (2006) The relationship between wear and dissipated energy in sliding systems. Wear 260:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jahangiri M, Hashempour M, Razavizadeh H, Rezaie H (2012) A new method to investigate the sliding wear behaviour of materials based on energy dissipation: W–25wt% Cu composite. Wear 274:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Salvatore F, Saad S, Hamdi H (2013) Modeling and simulation of tool wear during the cutting process. Procedia CIRP 8:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering & State-Key Laboratory of Traction PowerSouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations