Heating and cooling cycles that occur during the fusion joining process generate a significant amount of thermally caused residual stress that negatively influence the integrity and dimensional accuracy of the welded structures. The level of residual stress around the welding region was as large as the yield stress of the weld and was believed to have created an unwanted permanent deformation. In this paper, a three-dimensional thermo-metallurgical-mechanical finite element method (FEM), using the computational modeling software SYSWELD, was introduced to numerically study the residual stress fields and the distortion of thick welded plates of high-strength quenched and tempered steel (HSQTS) that were caused by hybrid laser/arc welding process in butt-joint configuration. The precision of thermal analysis results was verified prior to conducting mechanical analysis. The verified cooling curves obtained from the thermal simulation were acquired to predict the microstructure of the welding region. Employing the X-ray diffraction method (XRD), the field of residual stress was measured in order to validate the accuracy of the mechanical analysis. The results showed the numerically predicted temperature contours to be in a good agreement with the weld cross section as well as the temperature histories recorded by thermocouples. The microstructural evolution of the welding region revealed a relatively good consistency with the predicted phases based on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and the numerically simulated cooling curves. It was shown that experimental and numerical results of the residual stress field and distortion matched well with a large distortion theory.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Huang T ,Conrardy C, Dong P, Kvidahl L, Decan L, Distortion mitigation technique for lightweight ship structures fabrication, Northrop Grumman ship systems, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, US
Inose K, Kanbayashi J, Abe D, Matsumoto N, Nakanishi Y (2013) Design and welding method for high-strength steel structure using laser-arc hybrid welding. Weld World 57:657–664
Hassel T, Konya R, Collmann M, Schaumann P, Priebe S, Deiber TA, Beniyash A, Murray N, Bach FW (2013) Economical joining of tubular steel towers for wind turbines employing non-vacuum electron beam welding for high-strength steels in comparison with submerged arc welding. Weld World 57:551–559
Magudeeswaran G, Balasubramanian V, Reddy GM (2008) Influence of welding consumables on high cycle fatigue life of flux cored arc welded high strength, quenched and tempered steel joints. Met Mater Int 14:523–529
Balakrishnan J, Vasileiou AN, Francis JA, Smith MC, Roy MJ, Callaghan MD, Irvine NM (2018) Residual stress distributions in arc, laser and electron-beam welds in 30 mm thick SA508 steel: a cross-process comparison. Int J Press Vessel Pip 162:59–70
Zubairuddin M, Albert SK, Mahadevan S, Vasudevan M, Chaudhari V, Suri VK (2014) Experimental and finite element analysis of residual stress and distortion in GTA welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. J Mech Sci Technol 28:5095–5105
Smith DJ, Zheng G, Hurrell PR, Gill CM, Pellereau BME, Ayres K, Goudar D, Kingston E (2014) Measured and predicted residual stresses in thick section electron beam welded steels. Int J Press Vessel Pip 120–121:66–79
MazarAtabaki M, Yazdian N, Ma J, Kovacevic R (2016) High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration. Opt Laser Technol 83:1–12
Węglowski MS, Błacha S, Phillips A (2016) Electron beam welding—techniques and trends—review. Vacuum 130:72–92
Rittichai Phaoniam, Kenji Shinozaki, Motomichi Yamamoto, Kota Kadoi, Akito Nishijima, Masayuki Yamamoto, (2014) Solidification cracking susceptibility of modified 9Cr1Mo steel weld metal during hot-wire laser welding with a narrow gap groove, weld world, Vol58:469–476
Mazar Atabaki M, Ma J, Yang G, Kovacevic R (2014) Hybrid laser/arc welding of advanced high strength steel in different butt joint configurations. Mater Des 64:573–587
Cao X, Wanjara P, Huang J, Munro C, Nolting A (2011) Hybrid fiber laser—arc welding of thick section high strength low alloy steel. Mater Des 32:3399–3413
Camilleri D, McPherson N, Gray TGF (2013) The applicability of using low transformation temperature welding wire to minimize unwanted residual stresses and distortions. Int J Press Vessel Pip 110:2–8
Kim YC, Hirohata M, Inose K (2012) Effect of phase transformation on distortion and residual stress generated by laser beam welding on high-strength steel. Weld World 56:64–70
Radaj, D. (2003) Welding residual stresses and distortion: calculation and measurement, 2nd edn, Verlag für Schweissen und Verwandte Verfahren, DVS-Verlag 118–200
Lima TR, Tavares SMO, de Castro PMST (2017) Residual stress field and distortions resulting from welding processes: numerical modelling using SYSWELD. Ciênc Tecnol Mater 29:56–61
Derakhshan ED, Yazdian N, Craft B, Smith S, Kovacevic R (2018) Numerical simulation and experimental validation of residual stress and welding distortion induced by laser-based welding processes of thin structural steel plates in butt joint configuration. Opt Laser Technol 104:170–182
M. Mazar Atabaki, N. Yazdian, R. Kovacevic, Hybrid laser/arc welding of thick high-strength steel in different configurations, Advances in Manufacturing, In Press
Kannatey-Asibu E (2009) Residual stresses and distortion, Princ. Laser mater. Process. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, pp 361–405
SYSWELD Reference manual version 2015. ESI Group
Deng D, Murakawa H (2006) Numerical simulation of temperature field and residual stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipe and comparison with experimental measurements. Comput Mater Sci 37:269–277
Goldak J, Chakravarti A, Bibby M (1984) A new finite element model for welding heat sources. Metall Trans B 15:299–305
Fu G, Lourenço MI, Duan M, Estefen SF (2016) Influence of the welding sequence on residual stress and distortion of fillet welded structures. Mar Struct 46:30–55
Igor Barenyi, Ondrej Hires, Peter Liptak, (2013) Changes in mechanical properties of Armoured UHSLA steel ARMOX 500 after over tempering, problems of mechanics of mechatronics armament, aviation, safety engineering, 14:7–14
Rossini NS, Dassisti M, Benyounis KY, Olabi AG (2012) Methods of measuring residual stresses in components. Mater Des 35:572–588
Junaid M, Khan FN, Rahman K, Baig MN (2017) Effect of laser welding process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses in Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy. Opt Laser Technol 97:405–419
Ilman MN, Kusmono, Muslih MR, Subeki N, Wibowo H (2016) Mitigating distortion and residual stress by static thermal tensioning to improve fatigue crack growth performance of MIG AA5083 welds. Journal of Materials and Design 99:273–283
The authors would like to express their gratitude to Andrew Socha for his help to prepare and run the setup for welding at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing at SMU. This work was partially funded by NSF Grant IIP-1539853.
About this article
Cite this article
Yazdian, N., Derakhshan, E.D. & Kovacevic, R. Numerical prediction and experimental analysis of the residual stress fields and generated distortion in hybrid laser/arc welded thick plates of high-strength steels. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98, 2725–2735 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2404-0
- Hybrid laser/arc welding
- Thermo-metallurgical-mechanical analysis
- Residual stress