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Determination of the yield loci of four sheet materials (AA6111-T4, AC600, DX54D+Z, and H220BD+Z) by using uniaxial tensile and hydraulic bulge tests

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In sheet metal forming simulation, a flow curve and a yield criterion are vital requirements for obtaining reliable numerical results. It is more appropriate to determine a flow curve by using biaxial stress condition tests, such as the hydraulic bulge test, than a uniaxial test because hardening proceeds higher strains before necking occurs. In a uniaxial test, higher strains are extrapolated, which might lead to incorrect results. The bulge test, coupled with the digital image correlation (DIC) system, is used to obtain stress–strain data. In the absence of the DIC system, analytical methods are used to estimate hardening. Typically, such models incorporate a correction factor to achieve correlation to experimental data. An example is the Chakrabarty and Alexander method, which uses a correction factor based on the n value. Here, the Chakrabarty and Alexander approach was modified using a correction factor based on normal anisotropy. When compared with DIC data, the modified model was found to be able to better predict the hardening curves for the materials examined in this study. Because a biaxial flow curve is required to compute the biaxial yield stress, which is an essential input to advanced yield functions, the effects of the various approaches used to determine the biaxial stress–strain data on the shape of the BBC2005 yield loci were also investigated. The proposed method can accurately predict the magnitude of the biaxial yield stress, when compared with DIC data, for all materials investigated in this study.

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The first author would like to acknowledge the Saudi government and Umm Al-Qura University for funding his PhD studies.

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Correspondence to Hamzah Alharthi.

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Alharthi, H., Hazra, S., Alghamdi, A. et al. Determination of the yield loci of four sheet materials (AA6111-T4, AC600, DX54D+Z, and H220BD+Z) by using uniaxial tensile and hydraulic bulge tests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98, 1307–1319 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2339-5

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  • Biaxial flow curve
  • Yield criterion
  • Bulge test
  • Normal anisotropy