Exploring the hybrid metal extrusion and bonding process for butt welding of Al–Mg–Si alloys

  • Lise SandnesEmail author
  • Øystein Grong
  • Jan Torgersen
  • Torgeir Welo
  • Filippo Berto
Open Access


The hybrid metal extrusion and bonding (HYB) process is a new solid-state joining technique developed for aluminum alloys. By the use of filler material addition and plastic deformation sound joints can be produced at operating temperatures below 400 °C. The HYB process has the potential to compete with commonplace welding technologies, but its comparative advantages have not yet been fully explored. Here, we present for the first time the results from an exploratory investigation of the mechanical integrity of a 4-mm AA6082-T6 HYB joint, covering both hardness, tensile and Charpy V-notch testing. The joint is found to be free from defects like pores, internal cavities and kissing bonds, yet a soft heat-affected zone (HAZ) is still present. The joint yield strength is 54% of that of the base material, while the corresponding joint efficiency is 66%. The indications are that the HYB process may compete or even outperform conventional welding techniques for aluminum in the future after it has been fully developed and optimized.


Hybrid metal extrusion and bonding (HYB) Solid state joining Al-Mg-Si alloys Mechanical properties 



The authors are indebted to Ulf Roar Aakenes and Tor Austigard of HyBond AS for valuable assistance in producing the 4-mm AA6082-T6 HYB joint being examined in the present investigation.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge the financial support from HyBond AS, NTNU, and NAPIC (NTNU Aluminum Product Innovation Center).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018
corrected publication [July/2018]

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lise Sandnes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Øystein Grong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan Torgersen
    • 1
  • Torgeir Welo
    • 1
  • Filippo Berto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.HyBond ASTrondheimNorway

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