Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Development and analysis of energy consumption map for high-speed machining of Al 6061-T6 alloy

  • 253 Accesses

  • 10 Citations


Specific cutting energy consumption in high-speed orthogonal machining of Al 6061-T6 alloy has been analyzed in this work. The evaluated values of specific cutting energy are presented as an energy map developed over a cutting speed-undeformed chip thickness grid. Different regions characterized by energy consumption have been defined on the developed map. Very low values of specific cutting energy (up to 0.32 J/mm3) were observed for Al 6061-T6 alloy while machining over the cutting speed of 1500 m/min. Such low energy values have not been reported earlier in literature and they demonstrate another benefit of high-speed machining along with better surface finish, low cutting forces, and high production rate. The developed energy map revealed the presence of a very high energy zone in the midst of a comparatively low energy consumption region. A detailed analysis was performed to investigate the formation of this high energy zone or “avoidance zone.” The analysis of results revealed excessive built-up edge formation within this zone.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Jaffery SHI, Khan M, Ali L, Khan HA, Mufti RA, Khan A, Khan N, Jaffery SM (2014) The potential of solar powered transportation and the case for solar powered railway in Pakistan. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 39:270–276.

  2. 2.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2017 Overview, 2017

  3. 3.

    Zhao G, Hou C, Qiao J, Cheng X (2016) Energy consumption characteristics evaluation method in turning. Adv Mech Eng 8:1–8.

  4. 4.

    Li W, Kara S (2011) An empirical model for predicting energy consumption of manufacturing processes: a case of turning process. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 225:1636–1646

  5. 5.

    Dahmus JB, Gutowski TG (2004) An environmental analysis of machining, in: ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Congr. RD&D Expo: pp. 1–10

  6. 6.

    Gutowski T, Dahmus J, Thiriez A (2006) Electrical energy requirements for manufacturing processes, in: 13th CIRP Int. Conf. Life Cycle Eng, pp. 623–628

  7. 7.

    Warsi SS, Jaffery SHI, Ahmad R, Khan M, Ali L, Agha MH, Akram S (2017) Development of energy consumption map for orthogonal machining of Al 6061-T6 alloy. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf.

  8. 8.

    Campatelli G, Lorenzini L, Scippa A (2014) Optimization of process parameters using a response surface method for minimizing power consumption in the milling of carbon steel. J Clean Prod 66:309–316

  9. 9.

    Sarwar M, Persson M, Hellbergh H, Haider J (2009) Measurement of specific cutting energy for evaluating the efficiency of bandsawing different workpiece materials. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:958–965.

  10. 10.

    Shaw MC (2005) Metal cutting principles, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press

  11. 11.

    Groover M (2010) Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: materials, processes, and systems, 4th editio, John Wiley & Sons, Inc

  12. 12.

    Kalpakjian S, Schmid SR (2013) Manufacturing engineering and technology, Pearson Education, Limited

  13. 13.

    Balogun VA, Mativenga PT (2014) Impact of un-deformed chip thickness on specific energy in mechanical machining processes. J Clean Prod 69:260–268.

  14. 14.

    Draganescu F, Gheorghe M, Doicin C (2003) Models of machine tool efficiency and specific consumed energy. J Mater Process Technol 141:9–15

  15. 15.

    Kara S, Li W (2011) Unit process energy consumption models for material removal processes. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60:37–40

  16. 16.

    Velchev S, Kolev I, Ivanov K, Gechevski S (2014) Empirical models for specific energy consumption and optimization of cutting parameters for minimizing energy consumption during turning. J Clean Prod 80:139–149

  17. 17.

    Li L, Yan J, Xing Z (2013) Energy requirements evaluation of milling machines based on thermal equilibrium and empirical modelling. J Clean Prod 52:113–121

  18. 18.

    Balogun VA, Edem IF, Adekunle AA, Mativenga PT (2016) Specific energy based evaluation of machining efficiency. J Clean Prod 116:187–197.

  19. 19.

    Camposeco-Negrete C (2013) Optimization of cutting parameters for minimizing energy consumption in turning of AISI 6061 T6 using Taguchi methodology and ANOVA. J Clean Prod 53:195–203

  20. 20.

    Camposeco-Negrete C (2015) Optimization of cutting parameters using response surface method for minimizing energy consumption and maximizing cutting quality in turning of AISI 6061 T6 aluminum. J Clean Prod 91:109–117

  21. 21.

    Lim SC, Lee SH, Liu YB, Seah KHW (1993) Wear maps for uncoated steel cutting tools. Wear 170:137–144

  22. 22.

    Jaffery SI, Mativenga PT (2009) Study of the use of wear maps for assessing machining performance. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 223:1097–1105.

  23. 23.

    Jaffery S, Mativenga P (2009) Assessment of the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the wear map approach. Int J Adv 40:687–696.

  24. 24.

    Kishawy HA, Dumitrescu M, Ng EG, Elbestawi MA (2005) Effect of coolant strategy on tool performance, chip morphology and surface quality during high-speed machining of A356 aluminum alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:219–227.

  25. 25.

    Herbert Schulz TM (1992) High-speed machining. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 41:637–643

  26. 26.

    Abukhshim NA, Mativenga PT, Sheikh MA (2004) An investigation of the tool-chip contact length and wear in high-speed turning of EN19 steel. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 218:889–903.

  27. 27.

    American Society for Testing Materials., Annual book of ASTM standards 2016. Section 2, Nonferrous metal products. Vol. 02.02, Aluminum and magnesium alloys., ASTM International, 2016

  28. 28.

    The Aluminum Association Inc (2006) International alloy designations and chemical composition limits for wrought aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys, Alum. Assoc. Arlington, Virginia. 28.

  29. 29.

    Allen CM, Boardman B (2005) ASM Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and selection: irons, steels, and high performance alloys. doi:

  30. 30.

    Davis JR (1994) Stainless steels. Nature 129:475–494.,916-8.00008-X

  31. 31.

    Ezugwu EO, Wang ZM, Machado AR (1999) The machinability of nickel-based alloys: a review. J Mater Process Technol 86:1–16.

  32. 32.

    Sun S, Brandt M, Dargusch MS (2009) Characteristics of cutting forces and chip formation in machining of titanium alloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:561–568.

  33. 33.

    Iqbal SA, Mativenga PT, Sheikh MA (2009) A comparative study of the tool—chip contact length in turning of two engineering alloys for a wide range of cutting speeds. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 42:30–40.

  34. 34.

    Trent EM (1988) Metal cutting and the tribology of seizure: I seizure in metal cutting. Wear 128:29–45.

  35. 35.

    T. Childs, Metal machining theory and applications, Mater. Technol. (2000) 416

  36. 36.

    G. (Geoffrey) Boothroyd, W.A. (Winston A. Knight, Fundamentals of metal machining and machine tools, Marcel Dekker, 1989

  37. 37.

    Sandvik Coromant, Turning tools, 2015

  38. 38.

    Riahi M, Nazari H (2011) Analysis of transient temperature and residual thermal stresses in friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 via numerical simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 55:143–152.

  39. 39.

    Walsh RA, Cormier DR (2006) McGraw-Hill machining and metalworking handbook, McGraw-Hill

  40. 40.

    Lindberg RA (1983) Processes and materials of manufacture, Prentice Hall

  41. 41.

    Jaffery SHI, Khan M, Ali L, Mativenga PT (2016) Statistical analysis of process parameters in micromachining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 230:1017–1034.

  42. 42., (n.d.). Accessed 16 Dec 2016

  43. 43.

    Callister W, Rethwisch D (2007) Materials science and engineering: an introduction. doi:

  44. 44.

    Cobb HM (1999) Steel products manual: stainless steels, Iron Steel Soc 116

  45. 45.

    Black JT, Kohser RA (2008) DeGarmo’s materials and processes in manufacturing, 10th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc

  46. 46.

    T. Childs, Adiabatic shearing in metal machining, CIRP Encycl. Prod. Eng. (2016) 1–8. doi:,950-7

  47. 47.

    ISO, (International Standard Organization) 14040:2006 Environmental management. Life cycle assessment. Principles and framework, (2006)

  48. 48.

    Shin S, Woo J, Rachuri S (2017) Energy efficiency of milling machining: component modeling and online optimization of cutting parameters. J Clean Prod 161:1–28.

  49. 49.

    Bao H, Stevenson MG (1976) An investigation of built-up edge formation in the machining of aluminium. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 16:165–178

  50. 50.

    Jaffery S, Mativenga P (2012) Wear mechanisms analysis for turning Ti-6Al-4V—towards the development of suitable tool coatings. Int J Adv

  51. 51.

    Trent E, Wright P (2000) Metal cutting. doi:

  52. 52.

    Pawade RS, Sonawane HA, Joshi SS (2009) An analytical model to predict specific shear energy in high-speed turning of Inconel 718. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:979–990.

  53. 53.

    Ghosh S, Chattopadhyay AB, Paul S (2008) Modelling of specific energy requirement during high-efficiency deep grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48:1242–1253.

  54. 54.

    Friedman MY, Lenz E (1970) Investigation of the tool-chip contact length in metal cutting. Int J Mach Tool Des Res 10:401–416

  55. 55.

    Sadik MI, Lindström B (1993) The role of tool-chip contact length in metal cutting. J Mater Process Technol 37:613–627.

  56. 56.

    Sadik MI, Lindström B (1995) A simple concept to achieve a rational chip form. J Mater Process Technol 54:12–16.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Salman Sagheer Warsi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Warsi, S.S., Jaffery, S.H.I., Ahmad, R. et al. Development and analysis of energy consumption map for high-speed machining of Al 6061-T6 alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96, 91–102 (2018).

Download citation


  • Built-up edge
  • Energy map
  • High-speed machining
  • Specific cutting energy