Research on the double-sided incremental forming toolpath planning and generation based on STL model

  • Hu ZhuEmail author
  • Dongxuan Xiao
  • Jaeguan Kang


In order to take the advantages of the double-sided incremental forming (DSIF) that can freely switch the pressing and supporting functions of the two tools and realize the forming of the sheet parts with protruding features in both the positive and negative directions of the sheet (the sheet part with bidirectional protruding feature), a method for the double-sided incremental forming based on the stereo lithographic (STL) model was proposed. The method first classifies the forming features according to the protruding direction and the position relationship of the model into the different types of the features to be formed. The main forming surface and the supporting surface are determined by the types of the forming features, and the pressing and supporting tasks of the main tool and slave tool heads are assigned. Then, the cutter location points of the main tool and slave tool are generated, and the toolpath of the main tool and slave tool are planned out according to the forming sequence and the forming methods of the different forming features. Finally, a method of the interference detection and correction between the forming tool head and the sheet part is proposed. The finite element numerical simulation and the forming experiments of the sheet part with bidirectional protruding features show that the proposed toolpath generation method for the DSIF is applicable; the DSIF toolpath generated based on the STL model can fabricate the sheet part with the bidirectional protruding feature.


Incremental forming Double-sided incremental forming Feature recognition Toolpath generation STL model 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (No. 2014024011).


  1. 1.
    Li YL, Chen XX, Liu ZB, Sun J, Li FY, Li JF, Zhao GQ (2017) A review on the recent development of incremental sheet-forming process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(5-8): 2439–2462Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behera AK, Sousa RA, Ingarao G (2017) Single point incremental forming: an assessment of the progress and technology trends from 2005 to 2015. J Manuf Process 27:37–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mcanulty T, Jeswiet J, Doolan M (2017) Formability in single point incremental forming: a comparative analysis of the state of the art. CIRP J Manuf Sci Technol 16:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu B, Fang Y, Xu DK, Chen J, Ai S, Long H, Ou H, Cao J (2015) Investigation of material deformation mechanism in double side incremental sheet forming. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 93:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moser N, Pritchet D, Ren H, Ehmann K, Cao J (2016) An efficient and general finite element model for double-sided incremental forming. J Manuf Sci Eng 138(9):091007–1–091007–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meier H, Buff B, Laurischkat R, Smukala V (2009) Increasing the part accuracy in dieless robot-based incremental sheet metal forming. CIRP J Manuf Sci Technol 58(1):233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moser N, Zhang Z, Ren H, Zhang H, Shi Y, Lu B, Cao J (2016) Effective forming strategy for double-sided incremental forming considering in-plane curvature and tool direction. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65(1):265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lingam R, Prakash O, Belk JH, Reddy NV (2017) Automatic feature recognition and tool path strategies for enhancing accuracy in double sided incremental forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(5–8):1639–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malhotra R, Cao J, Ren F, Kiridena V, Xia ZC (2011) Improvement of geometric accuracy in incremental forming by using a pressing toolpath strategy with two forming tools. Int Manuf Sci Eng Conf 603–611Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meier H, Magnus C, Smukala V (2011) Impact of superimposed pressure on dieless incremental sheet metal forming with two moving tools. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60(1):327–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malhotra R, Cao J, Beltran M, Xu DK, Magargee J, Kiriden V, CedricXia Z (2012) Accumulative-DSIF strategy for enhancing process capabilities in incremental forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 61(1):251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lingam R, Srivastava A, Reddy NV (2016) Deflection compensations for tool path to enhance accuracy during double sided incremental forming. J Manuf Sci Eng 138(9):091008–1–091008–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhattacharya A, Singh S, Maneesh K, Reddy NV, Cao J (2011) Formability and surface finish studies in single point incremental forming. Int Manuf Sci Eng Conf 621–627Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang Y, Huang Y, Cao J, Reddy NV (2008) Experimental study on a new method of double side incremental forming. Int Manuf Sci Eng Conf 601–607Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu J H (2014) Numerical simulation and experimentation of two-sided incremental forming. Dissertation, Zhejiang University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang RF, Lu B, Chen J (2016) Development of a multi-pass double side incremental forming strategy for forming complex sheet metal parts with a step feature. J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ 50(9):1333–1338Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fang Y (2015) The investigation of deformation mechanism and process in double side incremental sheet forming. Dissertation, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qu XZ, Brent S (2003) A 3D surface offset method for STL-format models. Rapid Prototyp J 9(3):133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhu H, Han FC (2018) Determination of the pressing tool posture in the 5-axis CNC incremental forming. Forging Stamping Technol 42(11):84–88Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ren H, Moser N, Zhang Z, Ehmann K F, Cao J (2016) Effects of tool deflection in accumulated double-sided incremental forming regarding part geometry. Int Manuf Sci Eng Conf V001T02A069Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringShenyang Aerospace UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Automation EngineeringKyungnam UniversityChangwonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations