Isothermal closed-die forming process of magnesium alloy upper receiver: numerical simulation and experiments

  • Qiang Chen
  • Xiaohua ZhangEmail author
  • Jun LinEmail author
  • Hong Zhan
  • Zude Zhao
  • Zhiwen Xie
  • Baoguo Yuan


An isothermal closed-die forming process, including two forging procedures in which the female die of the final forging procedure is split into two parts, was developed, and a very complex component of magnesium alloy called the upper receiver was successfully produced. The obtained forged piece has higher mechanical properties and meets the standard of being safely used in special machines. Based on the FORGE software platform, finite element (FE) simulation was used to determine the preform shape, processing parameters, and forging procedure. A closed-die cavity was formed during the final forging procedure, which can effectively enhance the workability of magnesium alloy, refine the grain sizes, and increase the strength of the component. Importantly, the forged piece has homogeneous microstructures, and the ultimate tensile strength located at the lateral and bottom positions of the upper receiver is greater than 396 MPa and the minimum of the elongation ratio at fracture is 15%.


Closed-die forming process Magnesium alloys Finite element simulation Upper receiver 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This project is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51822509).


  1. 1.
    Kulekci MK (2008) Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 39:851–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Furuya H, Kogiso N, Matunaga S, Senda K (2000) Application pf magnesium alloys for aerospace structure systems. Mater Sci Forum 350-351:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lim SCV, Yong MS (2006) Plane-strain forging of wrought magnesium alloy AZ31. J Mater Process Technol 171(3):393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skubisz P, Sińczak J, Bednarek S (2006) Forgeability of Mg–Al–Zn magnesium alloys in hot and warm closed die forging. J Mater Process Technol 177:210–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li F, Liu Y, Li XB (2017) Microstructure evolution and deformation behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy during alternate forward extrusion. Acta Metall Sin (Engl Lett) 30(11):1135–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiang HW, Li F, Zeng X (2017) Microstructural characteristics and deformation of magnesium alloy AZ31 produced by continuous variable cross-section direct extrusion. J Mater Sci Technol 33(6):573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li F, Zeng X, Cao GJ (2015) Investigation of microstructure characteristics of the CVCDEed AZ31 magnesium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 639:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ogawa N, Shiomi M, Osakada K (2002) Forming limit of magnesium alloy at elevated temperatures for precision forging. Int J Mach Tool Manu 42:607–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hsiang SH, Kuo JL (2005) Applying ANN to predict the forming load and mechanical property of magnesium alloy under hot extrusion. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 26:970–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li JQ, Liu J, Cui ZS (2015) Microstructures and mechanical properties of AZ61 magnesium alloy after isothermal multidirectional forging with increasing strain rate. Mater Sci Eng A 643:32–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuo CC, Lin BT (2012) Optimization of springback for AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets in the L-bending process based on the Taguchi method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 58:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li LL, Cai ZY, Xu HQ, Wang M, Yu J (2014) Research on AZ31 sheet one-pass hot spinning based on orthogonal experiment design. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75:897–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Q, Zhang ZM, Zhang X, Yu JM (2008) Precision forging technologies for magnesium alloy bracket and wheel. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 18:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karparvarfard SMH, Shaha SK, Behravesh SB, Jahed H, Williams BW (2017) Microstructure, texture and mechanical behavior characterization of hot forged cast ZK60 magnesium alloy. J Mater Sci Technol 33:907–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu J, Cui ZS (2009) Hot forging process design and parameters determination of magnesium alloy AZ31B spur bevel gear. J Mater Process Technol 209:5871–5880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hwang YM, Huang SJ, Huang YS (2013) Study of seamless tube extrusion of SiCp-reinforced AZ61 magnesium alloy composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(5–8):1361–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xia XS, Xiao L, Chen Q, Li H, Tan YJ (2018) Hot forging process design, microstructure, and mechanical properties of cast Mg–Zn–Y–Zr magnesium alloy tank cover. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:4199–4208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shan D, Xu W, Han X, Huang X (2012) Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy. Mater Sci Eng B 177:1698–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cai Y, Sun CY, Wang WR, Li YL, Wan L, Qian LY (2018) An isothermal forming process with multi-stage variable speed for magnesium component assisted by sensitivity analysis. Mater Sci Eng A 729:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yuan L, Zhao Z, Shi WC, Xu FC, Shan DB (2015) Isothermal forming of the large-size AZ80A magnesium alloy forging with high mechanical properties. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78:2037–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin P, Sun Y, Chi CZ, Wang WX (2017) Effect of plastic anisotropy of ZK60 magnesium alloy sheet on its forming characteristics during deep drawing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88:1629–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shan DB, Xu WC, Lu Y (2004) Study on precision forging technology for a complex-shaped light alloy forging. J Mater Process Technol 151:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    He HL, Huang SQ, Yi YP, Guo WF (2017) Simulation and experimental research on isothermal forging with semi-closed die and multi-stage-change speed of large AZ80 magnesium alloy support beam. J Mater Process Technol 246:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Puchi-cabrera ES, Staia MH, Guérin JD, Lesage J, Dubar M, Chicot D (2013) Analysis of the work-hardening behavior of C-Mn steels deformed under hot-working conditions. Int J Plast 51(6):145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu FZ, Lin J, Chen W, Kang F, Hu CK, Huang SH, Chen Q (2016) Constitutive equation of 34Cr2Ni2Mo alloy structural steel for hot working. J Netshape Form Eng 8(6):1–6Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li WH, Dong XP, Chen XJ, Wu XQ (2010) Research and application of lubrication mechanism for aluminum alloy hot die forging. Forg Stamping Technol 35(3):128–131Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wen BC (2010) Handbook of mechanical design, 5th edn. Mechanical industry press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southwest Technology and Engineering Research InstituteChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHarbin University of Science and TechnologyHarbinPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of Science and Technology LiaoningAnshanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations