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Diode area melting single-layer parametric analysis of 316L stainless steel powder

Abstract

Diode area melting (DAM) is a novel additive manufacturing process that utilises customised architectural arrays of low power laser diode emitters for high speed parallel processing of metallic powdered feedstock. The laser diodes operate at shorter laser wavelengths (808 nm) than conventional SLM fibre lasers (1064 nm) theoretically enabling more efficient energy absorption for specific materials. This investigation presents a parametric analysis of the DAM process, identifying the effect of powder characteristics, laser beam profile, laser power and scan speed on the porosity of a single-layer sample. Also presented is the effect of process energy density on melt pool depth (irradiated thermal energy penetration capable of achieving melting) on 316L stainless steel powder. An analysis of the density and the melt depth fraction of single layers is presented in order to identify the conditions that lead to the fabrication of fully dense DAM parts. Energy densities in excess of 86 J/mm3 were theorised as sufficient to enable processing of fully dense layers.

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Correspondence to Kamran Mumtaz.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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Zavala-Arredondo, M., Groom, K.M. & Mumtaz, K. Diode area melting single-layer parametric analysis of 316L stainless steel powder. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94, 2563–2576 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1040-4

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Keywords

  • Selective laser melting
  • Diode area melting
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Laser diode
  • Advanced manufacturing, high speed