Data mining in resistance spot welding

A non-destructive method to predict the welding spot diameter by monitoring process parameters
  • Ingo Boersch
  • Uwe Füssel
  • Christoph Gresch
  • Christoph GroßmannEmail author
  • Benjamin Hoffmann


Resistance spot welding is the dominant process in the present mass production of steel constructions without sealing requirements with single sheet thicknesses up to 3 mm. Two of the main applications of resistance spot welding are the automobile and the railway vehicle manufacturing industry. The majority of these connections has safety-related character and therefore they must not fall below a certain weld diameter. Since resistance spot welding has been established, this weld diameter has been usually used as the gold standard. Despite intensive efforts, there has not been found yet a reliable method to detect this connection quality non-destructively. Considerable amounts of money and steel sheets are wasted on making sure that the process does not result in faulty joints. The indication of the weld diameter by in-process monitoring in a reliable way would allow the quality documentation of joints during the welding process and additionally lead through demand-actuated milling cycles to a substantial decrease of electrode consumption. An annual, estimated reduction in the seven- to nine-figure range could be achieved. It has an important impact, because the economics of the process is essentially characterized by the electrode caps (Klages 24). We propose a simple and straightforward approach using data mining techniques to accurately predict the weld diameter from recorded data during the welding process. In this paper, we describe the methods used during data preprocessing and segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and model creation and validation. We achieve promising results during an analysis of more than 3000 classified welds using a model tree as a predictor with a success rate of 93 %. In the future, we hope to validate our model with unseen welding data and implement it in a real world application.


Resistance spot welding Electrode life prognosis Data mining Feature extraction Model selection 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingo Boersch
    • 1
  • Uwe Füssel
    • 2
  • Christoph Gresch
    • 1
  • Christoph Großmann
    • 2
    Email author
  • Benjamin Hoffmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics and MediaUniversity of Applied Sciences BrandenburgBrandenburg an der HavelGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Manufacturing Science and EngineeringTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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