Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Empirical modeling for the effects of welding factors on tensile properties of bobbin tool friction stir-welded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy

  • 371 Accesses

  • 11 Citations


For the joints of bobbin tool friction stir welding (BT-FSW), welding factors such as welding speed, tool rotation speed, and shoulder pinching gap have significant effects on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation (TE). This work developed empirical models to describe the relationships between the welding factors and the tensile properties of bobbin tool friction stir-welded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. Based on the models, the factor effects can be analyzed quantitatively and graphically, and the UTS and TE of the joints can be predicted and optimized effectively. Firstly, experiments were carried out according to a three-factor and five-level central composite design (CCD). Secondly, empirical models were developed by fitting experimental data points. Adequacies of the models were checked by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Thirdly, the analysis and optimization processes were conducted. Based on the expressions and plots of the developed models, the individual and interactive effects of the welding factors were investigated. By the multiple-desirability function and three-dimensional response surface methodology (RSM), the optimum welding factors were calculated from the models. The validation trial has been carried out, and the result shows that the models are adequate for predicting and optimizing the BT-FSW factor effects.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Thomas, WM, Nicholas, ED, Needham, JC, Church, MG, Templesmith P, Dawes, CJ. Friction stir welding. International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92, Great Britain Patent Application No. 9,125,978.8; 1991

  2. 2.

    Fehrenbacher A, Smith CB, Duffie NA, Ferrier NJ, Pfefferkorn FE, Zinn MR (2014) Combined temperature and force control for robotic friction stir welding. J Manuf Sci Eng 136:021007

  3. 3.

    Threadgill PL, Leonard AJ, Shercliff HR, Withers PJ (2009) Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. Int Mater Rev 54:49–93

  4. 4.

    Doude H, Schneider J, Patton B, Stafford S, Waters T, Varner C (2015) Optimizing weld quality of a friction stir welded aluminum alloy. J Mater Process Technol 222:188–196

  5. 5.

    Babajanzade Roshan S, Behboodi Jooibari M, Teimouri R, Asgharzadeh-Ahmadi G, Falahati-Naghibi M, Sohrabpoor H (2013) Optimization of friction stir welding process of AA7075 aluminum alloy to achieve desirable mechanical properties using ANFIS models and simulated annealing algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:1803–1818

  6. 6.

    Mustafa FF, Kadhym AH, Yahya HH (2015) Tool geometries optimization for friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy T-joint using Taguchi method to improve the mechanical behavior. J Manuf Sci Eng 137:031018

  7. 7.

    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 50:1–78

  8. 8.

    Mendes N, Neto P, Loureiro A, Moreira AP (2016) Machines and control systems for friction stir welding: a review. Mater Des 90:256–265

  9. 9.

    Huang YX, Wan L, Lv SX, Feng JC (2013) Novel design of tool for joining hollow extrusion by friction stir welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 18:239–246

  10. 10.

    Zhang H, Wang M, Zhang X, Yang G (2015) Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of bobbin tool friction stir welded 2A14-T6 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 65:559–566

  11. 11.

    Liu HJ, Hou JC, Guo H (2013) Effect of welding speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of self-reacting friction stir welded 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 50:872–878

  12. 12.

    Li WY, Fu T, Hütsch L, Hilgert J, Wang FF, dos Santos JF, Huber N (2014) Effects of tool rotational and welding speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of bobbin-tool friction-stir welded Mg AZ31. Mater Des 64:714–720

  13. 13.

    Hou JC, Liu HJ, Zhao YQ (2014) Influences of rotation speed on microstructures and mechanical properties of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy joints fabricated by self-reacting friction stir welding tool. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73:1073–1079

  14. 14.

    Okamoto K, Sato A, Park SHC, Hirano S (2012) Microstructure and mechanical properties of FSWed aluminum extrusion with bobbin tools. Mater Sci Forum:706–709

  15. 15.

    Ramachandran KK, Murugan N, Shashi Kumar S. 2016 Performance analysis of dissimilar friction stir welded aluminium alloy AA5052 and HSLA steel butt joints using response surface method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol.

  16. 16.

    Kumar A, Mahapatra MM, Jha PK, Mandal NR, Devuri V (2014) Influence of tool geometries and process variables on friction stir butt welding of Al–4.5%Cu/TiC in situ metal matrix composites. Mater Des 59:406–414

  17. 17.

    Babu N, Karunakaran N, Balasubramanian V. A 2015 Study to estimate the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA 5059 aluminium alloy joints. Int J Adv Manuf Technol

  18. 18.

    Heidarzadeh A, Saeid T (2013) Prediction of mechanical properties in friction stir welds of pure copper. Mater Des 52:1077–1087

  19. 19.

    Sued MK, Pons D, Lavroff J, Wong EH (2014) Design features for bobbin friction stir welding tools: development of a conceptual model linking the underlying physics to the production process. Mater Des 54:632–643

  20. 20.

    GB/T2651-2008/ISO4136:2001 2008 Tensile test method on welded joints. Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China

  21. 21.

    Pan LJ, Chen, JQ 2008 Experimental design and data processing. Southeast University Press

  22. 22.

    Arora KS, Pandey S, Schaper M, Kumar R (2010) Effect of process parameters on friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 2219-T87. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 50:941–952

  23. 23.

    Li JQ, Liu HJ (2013) Effects of tool rotation speed on microstructures and mechanical properties of AA2219-T6 welded by the external non-rotational shoulder assisted friction stir welding. Mater Des 43:299–306

  24. 24.

    Zhou JM, Wang JM, Yan HJ, Li SX, Gui GC (2012) Multiple-response optimization for melting process of aluminum melting furnace based on response surface methodology with desirability function. J Cent South Univ 19:2875–2885

  25. 25.

    Lampeas GN, Diamantakos LD. 2015 Effects of nonconventional tools on the thermo-mechanical response of friction stir welded materials. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME. 137

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Yuhan Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, S., Bi, Q., Wang, Y. et al. Empirical modeling for the effects of welding factors on tensile properties of bobbin tool friction stir-welded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90, 1105–1118 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9450-2

Download citation


  • Bobbin tool
  • Friction stir welding
  • Empirical model
  • Optimization